Üsküp’de Bir Osmanlı Mutasarrıfı: Ali Hıfzî Paşa ve Bardovça’daki KonağıNalan Karaöz
Osmanlı Devleti’nin Rumeli’deki en önemli şehirlerinden Üsküp, fethinden hemen sonra yoğun imar faaliyetine sahne olmuş ve bir Türk şehri kimliğine hızla kavuşmuştur. Üsküp, Osmanlı dini ve sivil mimarisinin zengin örneklerine sahip olması açısından Osmanlı şehirciliğinin dikkat çeken örneklerinden birisidir. 17. yüzyılda II. Viyana Kuşatması ve sonuçları bölgedeki Osmanlı gücünü sarsmış, 18. yüzyıl sonunda Fransız İhtilali ile birlikte zuhur eden milliyetçilik akımları 19. yüzyılda bölgeyi pek çok problemle karşı karşıya getirmiştir. 1912 yılında Osmanlı coğrafyasından ayrılan Üsküp ve civarında bugün pek çok mimari eser kaybolmuş veya büyük ölçüde zarar görmüştür. Bu çalışmada, Tarih perspektifinden biyografik bir çalışmayı tamamlayan konak ve kullanımı ele alınmıştır. Önemli bir Arnavut hanedanına ve paşa ailesine mensup; uzun yıllar Üsküp Mutassarıflığı ve Nazırlığı yapmış, Ali Hıfzî Paşa’nın hayatı ve Bardovça’da yaptırmış olduğu konağının özelliklerini, nasıl kullanıldığını özel bir Osmanlı yerleşimi olarak ortaya koymayı hedeflemiştir. Takribi 50 sene Osmanlı Devleti adına Üsküp’te yöneticilik yapan ve bölgede yürüttüğü siyasetle istikrarı sağlayan Ali Hıfzî Paşa az bilinen bir şahsiyettir. Bu bağlamda onun hayatı ve bir Osmanlı paşası olarak faaliyetleri; bölgede yapılan saha araştırmaları, bölgeye özgü kaynaklar ve Osmanlı arşiv belgelerinden istifade edilerek aydınlatılmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca Balkan topraklarında, mimarisi ve abidevi yapısıyla damga vuran, günümüzde kısmen ayakta olan Ali Hıfzî Paşa Konağı, Rumeli’de seçkin bir aile ve paşa ikametgâh örneği olarak incelenmiş ve konağa dair yabancıların izlenimleri aktarılmıştır.
An Ottoman Governor in Skopje: Ali Hıfzî Pasha and His Mansion in BardovciNalan Karaöz
Skopje was one of the most important cities of the Ottoman Empire in Rumelia and witnessed intense development activities right after its conquest to quick gain the identity of a Turkish city. Skopje has also been a significant city hosting rich examples of Ottoman religious and civil architecture. In the 17th century, the Battle of Vienna shook Ottoman power in the region, after which the nationalism that emerged with the French Revolution challenged the Ottoman Empire in every sense. This study presents information about the life of Ali Hıfzî Pasha, a member of a famous Albanian dynasty and the pasha family and Governor and Minister of Skopje for many years, as well as about the mansion he had built in Bardovci. Ali Hıfzî Pasha, a manager in Skopje on behalf of the Ottoman Empire for about 50 years who provided stability through the policies he implemented in the region, was a little-known personality. In this context, the article attempts to touch on the issues and activities related to his life using the resources obtained by regional research and Ottoman archival documents. In addition, the article studies Ali Hıfzî Pasha Mansion, which has left its mark on the Balkan lands with its architectural superiority and monumental structure and still partially stands today, as an example of an elite family and pasha residence in Rumelia.
Rumelia refers to the area containing the places the Ottoman State conquered in Europe and covers the entire territory of the Ottoman State in Europe. Skopje was one of the most important cities in the region, as in 1390, the Ottoman-Turkish city had been quickly overtaken by the Ottoman government. Ottoman housing and zoning activities were sufficiently crucial in forming the city’s identity. In the architectural tradition of Skopje in particular, places commissioned by administrators and nobles had special meaning. Examples are found of civic architecture as well as religious and administrative architecture from the past that have survived to the present.
The city of Skopje was the center of the Beylerbeyi [city administrators] and had several palaces and mansions that were built there. One of these was the Ali Hıfzî Pasha Mansion in Bardovci village between Skopje and Tetovo and has partially survived to the present.
The Skopje Muhtasarrif [Ottoman tax collector] Ali Hıfzî Pasha belonged to a noble family of Albanians from the Dukagjin Highlands, part of the Rec Lok dynasty. Since 1689, he had served the Ottoman Empire, while his brothers served the state alongside their father at the head Recep Pasha. The reign of Ali Hıfzî Pasha as pasha occurred when the Balkans and the Ottoman State were undergoing radical changes in general.
The lifting of the Janissary Quarry and the fundamental reforms that followed, the intense currents of nationalism that came with the French Revolution, the heavy consequences of the Serbian uprisings, the rebellions of the Albanian Pashas, and the turmoil in the Peloponnese region had forced the state to change. And in the midst of this, Skopje Nâzır Ali Hıfzî Pasha was given too many duties. He had evidently done these things successfully and been appreciated both by the people and by the state. Ali Hıfzî Pasha gained many rank, particularly during the reign of Mahmud II.
As a fair, intelligent, and intellectual Ottoman pasha beloved by the Muslim and non-Muslim peoples, extensive knowledge about Ali Hıfzî Pasha is found in European
Ali Hıfzî Pasha Mansion is an outstanding example in all aspects of Ottoman residence architecture in Rumelia. Avzi Pasha Mansion is how it was known by the people of the region and in the literature, as it had made a name for itself when it was being built. This mansion is also said to have been famous as the most ostentatious architectural structure of the region during the period, a mansion even more magnificent than the residences built by the Serbian King Miloš.
Architecturally, Ali Hıfzî Pasha Mansion contains the delicacy of Mahmud II dynasty as well as the architecture of the region, and the house is invisible from the outside of the street where the traditional architectural principle had been applied. It is located at the center of a group of buildings designed for different functions and is located on an area of approximately 18-20 decares surrounded by walls. It is surrounded by 8 square bastions and 5-meter high enclosed walls. The Harem and Selamlık buildings of equal size were placed symmetrically, and the mabeyn [room separating the men’s and women’s rooms] structure, which was used as a treasury between the two buildings, was designed as a unifying building. In the kulliye [complex], structures such as an oven, forge, animal barn, kitchen, and outbuildings were placed properly.
In addition, the mansion had a magnificent flower garden with plants from various parts of the region, and a small stream adorning the surrounding area attracted attention. The interior design of the mansion draws attention with its oval sofa plan and Turkish Baroque style characteristic of the period. With its unique location and Istanbul style, Ali Hıfzî Pasha Mansion was and remains monumental in the Balkans.
After Ali Hıfzî Pasha left Skopje under imperative, the mansion was later passed down to his grandchildren during World War I. The mansion was badly damaged during World War II, after which it was turned into the property of the Yugoslav People’s Army by the Yugoslav State, which was established on these lands in 1958; they demolished many parts of the mansion and erected buildings as they saw fit.
Afterward, the mansion was neglected and left to rot. In 1969, the Skopje City Council for the Protection of Cultural Monuments” decided to rebuild this monumental mansion according to its original detailed plan, which was requested by the famous architect Prof. Branislav Kojič. However, although the plan and even the model were made, this decision was unfortunately not realized, and the mansion was left to its fate.
Today, Ali Hıfzî Pasha Mansion is under the protection of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of North Macedonia and is in a dilapidated state. Although it has been neglected, the foundations of the mansion, the main entrance gate, and the fortification walls are still standing. Ali Hıfzî Pasha Mansion could neither be preserved nor destroyed, and this resulted in the loss of one of the most magnificent buildings of the period and regional architecture in Ottoman Rumelian lands.