Araştırma Makalesi

DOI :10.26650/jot.2021.7.2.967896   IUP :10.26650/jot.2021.7.2.967896    Tam Metin (PDF)

Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate

David R. Perkins

This paper reviews associations between weather and visitor attendance at two climatically similar zoological parks. This is achieved by examining weather, climate, and attendance data at the Indianapolis and St. Louis zoological parks over a period of approximately one decade. The methodological approach utilizes tourism climatology as the foundation for information gathering, display, and analysis of results. Peak days of attendance at both zoos coincide with ‘warm’ and ‘slightly’ warm days. Regarding the lowest attendances, visitors at both locations appear to display more aversion to cold thermal stress conditions than hot thermal stress conditions, however visitors at St. Louis Zoo appear to be more averse to cold conditions. Discussions regarding how social calendars and admission pricing may interact with this relationship are introduced.

PDF Görünüm


  • Anna, B., Milica, P., Blazejczyk, K., & Olesya, S. (2021). Weather suitability for outdoor tourism in three European regions in first decades of the twenty-first century. International journal of biometeorology, 65(8), 1339-1356. google scholar
  • ASHRAE (2001) ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, 8. American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA. google scholar
  • ASHRAE (2004) ASHRAE Standard 55-2004: Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA. google scholar
  • Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Zoo and Aquarium Statistics, 2018. google scholar
  • Aylen, J., Albertson, K., & Cavan, G. (2014). The impact of weather and climate on tourism demand: the case of Chester Zoo. Climatic Change, 127, 183-197. http://dx.doi. org/10.1007%2Fs10584-014-1261-6 google scholar
  • Baruti, M. M., Johansson, E., & Astrand, J. (2019). Review of studies on outdoor thermal comfort in warm humid climates: Challenges of informal urban fabric. International journal of biometeorology, 63(10), 1449-1462. google scholar
  • Bigano, A., Hamilton, J., and Tol, R. (2006). The Impact of Climate on Holiday Destination Choice. Climatic Change, 76, 389-406. google scholar
  • Blazejczyk, K., Epstein, Y., Jendritzky, G., Staiger, H., & Tinz, B. (2012). Comparison of UTCI to selected thermal indices. International journal of biometeorology, 56(3), 515-535. google scholar
  • Brandenburg, C. and Ploner, A. (2002). Models to predict visitor attendance levels and the presence of specific user groups. Monitoring and management of visitor flows in recreational and protected areas. Conference proceedings, 166-172. google scholar
  • Brida, J. G., & Pulina, M. (2010). A literature review on the tourism-led-growth hypothesis. google scholar
  • Caldeira, A.M. & Kastenholz, E. (2018) It’s so hot: predicting climate change effects on urban tourists’ time-space experience, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26:9, 1516-1542, DOI:10.108 0/09669582.2018.1478840 google scholar
  • Cellini, R., & Cuccia, T. (2018). How free admittance affects charged visits to museums: an analysis of the Italian case. Oxford Economic Papers, 70(3), 680-698. google scholar
  • Chen, Y. C., Chen, W. N., Chou, C. C. K., & Matzarakis, A. (2020). Concepts and new implements for modified physiologically equivalent temperature. Atmosphere, 11(7), 694. google scholar
  • Cortesâo, J., Alves, F B., & Raaphorst, K. (2020). Photographic comparison: A method for qualitative outdoor thermal perception surveys. International journal of biometeorology, 64(2), 173-185. google scholar
  • Coşkun, İ. O., & Özer, M. (2014). A reexamination of the tourism-led growth hypothesis under growth and tourism uncertainties in Turkey. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3(8), 256-272. google scholar
  • Davey, G. (2007) An analysis of country, socio-economic and time factors on worldwide zoo attendance during a 40 year period, International Zoo Yearbook, 41(1): 217-225. google scholar
  • de Freitas, C.R. (1990). Recreation climate assessment. International Journal of Climatology, 10: 89-103. google scholar
  • de Freitas, C. R., Matzarakis, A., & Scott, D. (2008). Climate, tourism and recreation: research progress a decade on. Developments in Tourism Climatology, 17, 5-13. google scholar
  • de Freitas, C. R., Scott, D., & McBoyle, G. (2008). A second generation climate index for tourism (CIT): specification and verification. International Journal of biometeorology, 52(5), 399-407. google scholar
  • Elnabawi, M. H., Hamza, N., & Dudek, S. (2016). Thermal perception of outdoor urban spaces in the hot arid region of Cairo, Egypt. Sustainable cities and society, 22, 136-145. google scholar
  • Falk, M. (2014). Impact of weather conditions on tourism demand in the peak summer season over the last 50 years. Tourism Management Perspectives, Volume 9, Pages 24-35, ISSN 2211-9736, google scholar
  • Falk, M. (2015). Summer weather conditions and tourism flows in urban and rural destinations. Climatic Change, 30: 201. google scholar
  • Falk, M., Hagsten, E. (2016). Importance of early snowfall for Swedish ski resorts: Evidence based on monthly data, Tourism Management, Volume 53, Pages 61-73, ISSN 0261-5177, https://doi. org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.09.002. google scholar
  • Falk, M. & Vieru, M. (2017) Demand for downhill skiing in subarctic climates, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17:4, 388-405, DOI: 10.1080/15022250.2016.1238780 google scholar
  • Falk, M., & Lin, X. (2018). Sensitivity of winter tourism to temperature increases over the last decades. Economic Modelling, 71, 174-183 google scholar
  • Gomez-Martin, B. (2005). Weather, climate and tourism a geographical perspective. Annals of tourism Research, 52 (5), 571-591. google scholar
  • Gössling, S., Scott, D., Hall, C. M., Ceron, J. P., & Dubois, G. (2012). Consumer behaviour and demand response of tourists to climate change. Annals of tourism research, 39(1), 36-58. google scholar
  • Hamilton, J., Lau, M. (2005). The role of climate information in tourist destination choice decision-making. Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Biometeorology Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, 608-611. google scholar
  • Hayden, M.H., Brenkert-Smith, H., Wilhelmi, O.V. (2011). Differential Adaptive Capacity to Extreme Heat: A Phoenix, Arizona, Case Study. Weather, Climate & Society, 3(4), P. 269-280. google scholar
  • Hewer, M. J., Scott, D., & Gough, W. A. (2015). Tourism climatology for camping: A case study of two Ontario parks (Canada). Theoretical and applied climatology, 121(3-4), 401-411. google scholar
  • Hewer, M., Scott, D., French, A. (2016): Seasonal weather sensitivity, temperature thresholds, and climate change impacts for park visitation, Tourism Geographies, DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2016.1172662 google scholar
  • Hewer, M. J., & Gough, W. A. (2016a). Weather sensitivity for zoo visitation in Toronto, Canada: a quantitative analysis of historical data. International journal of biometeorology, 60(11), 16451660. google scholar
  • Hewer, M.J., & Gough, W.A. (2016b). Assessing the Impact of Projected Climate Change on Zoo Visitation in Toronto (Canada). Journal Of Geography And Geology, 8(2), p30. doi:http://dx.doi. org/10.5539/jgg.v8n2p30 google scholar
  • Hewer, M.J.; Gough, W.A. (2016c). The Effect of Seasonal Climatic Anomalies on Zoo Visitation in Toronto (Canada) and the Implications for Projected Climate Change. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 71. google scholar
  • Hewer, M.J., Scott, D.J. & Gough, W.A. (2017) Differences in the importance of weather and weather-based decisions among campers in Ontario parks (Canada). Int J Biometeorol 61: 1805. google scholar
  • Hewer, M.J., Scott, D.J. & Gough, W.A. (2018). Differential temperature preferences and thresholds among summer campers in Ontario’s southern provincial parks: a Canadian case study in tourism climatology Theor Appl Climatol 133: 1163. google scholar
  • Hewer, M.J., Gough, W.A. (2018). Using a Multi-Year Temporal Climate Analogue Approach to Assess Climate Change Impacts on Park Visitation. Weather, Climate & Society, EOR. https:// google scholar
  • Hondula, D.M., Vanos, J.K., Gosling, S.N. (2014). The SSC: a decade of climate-health research and future directions. Int J Biometeorol, 58(2): 109-120. google scholar
  • Höppe, P., (1999). The physiological equivalent temperature - a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. International Journal of Biometeorology 43, 71-75. google scholar
  • Jere, S., Banda, A., Kasense, B., Siluyele, I., & Moyo, E. (2019). Forecasting Annual International Tourist Arrivals in Zambia Using Holt-Winters Exponential Smoothing. Open Journal of Statistics, 9(2), 258-267. google scholar
  • Kalkstein, L.S., Barthel, D.C., Greene, S.J., Nichols, M.C. (1996) A new spatial synoptic classification: application to air mass analysis. International Journal of Climatology, 16: 9831004. google scholar
  • Katz, R. W., & Murphy, A. H. (Eds.). (2005). Economic value of weather and climate forecasts. Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Kent, W.P., Sheridan, S.C. (2011). The Impact of Cloud Cover on Major League Baseball. Weather, Climate & Society, 3(1), P. 7-15. google scholar
  • Klok, L., Rood, N., Kluck, J., & Kleerekoper, L. (2019). Assessment of thermally comfortable urban spaces in Amsterdam during hot summer days. International journal of biometeorology, 63(2), 129-141. google scholar
  • Lam, C.K.C., Loughnan, M. & Tapper, N. (2016). Visitors’ perception of thermal comfort during extreme heat events at the Royal Botanic Garden Melbourne.Int J Biometeorol. doi:10.1007/ s00484-015-1125-4 google scholar
  • Lenzholzer, S., & de Vries, S. (2020). Exploring outdoor thermal perception—a revised model. International journal of biometeorology, 64(2), 293-300. google scholar
  • Lenzholzer, S., & Nikolopoulou, M. (2020). Foreword to the special issue on subjective approaches to thermal perception. International journal of biometeorology, 64(2), 167-171. google scholar
  • Lin, T.P. (2009). Thermal perception, adaptation and attendance in a public square in hot and humid regions. Building and Environment. 44, 2017-2026. google scholar
  • Maddison, D., (2001). In search of warmer climates? The impact of climate change on flows of British tourists. Climatic Change, 49(1/2): 196-208. google scholar
  • Manavvi, S., & Rajasekar, E. (2021). Evaluating outdoor thermal comfort in “Haats”-The open air markets in a humid subtropical region. Building and Environment, 190, 107527. google scholar
  • Mason, P. (2000) Zoo Tourism: the Need for More Research, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(4): 333-339. google scholar
  • Matzarakis, A., Mayer, H. (1996). Another kind of environmental stress: thermal stress. WHO collaborating centre for air quality management and air pollution control. Newsletters 18:7-10. google scholar
  • Melillo, J. M., Richmond, T. T., & Yohe, G. (2014). Climate change impacts in the United States. Third national climate assessment, 52. google scholar
  • Mieczkowski, Z. (1985). The tourism climatic index: a method of evaluating world climates for tourism. The Canadian Geographer, 29, 220-233. google scholar
  • Nicholls, S., Holecek, D.F., and Noh, J. (2008). Impact of weather variability on golfing activity and implications of climate change, Tourism Analysis, 13: 117-130. google scholar
  • NOAA’s Midwest Regional Climate Center (2014). Climate Normals by City. google scholar
  • Olya, H. G. T., & Alipour, H. (2015). Risk assessment of precipitation and the tourism climate index. Tourism google scholar
  • Pachauri, R. K., Allen, M. R., Barros, V. R., Broome, J., Cramer, W., Christ, R., ... & van Ypserle, J. P. (2014). Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (p. 151). IPCC. google scholar
  • Pantavou, K., Lykoudis, S., Nikolopoulou, M., & Tsiros, I. X. (2018). Thermal sensation and climate: A comparison of UTCI and PET thresholds in different climates. International journal of biometeorology, 62(9), 1695-1708. google scholar
  • Paudyal, R., Stein, T. V., Birendra, K. C., & Adams, D. C. (2019). Effects of weather factors on recreation participation in a humid subtropical region. International journal of biometeorology, 63(8), 1025-1038. google scholar
  • Perkins, D.R. (2012). ‘Forecasting Tourist Decisions Regarding Zoo Attendance Using Weather and Climate References’, Master’s Thesis. google scholar
  • Perkins, D.R. Int J Biometeorol (2016). Using synoptic weather types to predict visitor attendance at Atlanta and Indianapolis zoological parks. doi:10.1007/s00484-016-1142-y google scholar
  • Perkins, D.R.; Debbage, K.G. (2016). Weather and Tourism: Thermal Comfort and Zoological Park Visitor Attendance. Atmosphere, 7, 44. google scholar
  • Personal Communication (2015a). Robin Rushton, Indianapolis Zoo Corporate Sponsorships, January 30, 2016. google scholar
  • Personal Communication (2015b). Susan Gallagher, St. Louis Zoo Public Relations, February 14, 2016. google scholar
  • Ploner, A. and Brandenburg, C. (2003). Modelling visitor attendance levels subject to day of the week and weather: a comparison between linear regression models and regression trees. Journal for Nature Conservation, 11, 297-308. google scholar
  • Rasilla Âlvarez, D. F., & Crespo Barqum, S. (2021). Weather influences on zoo visitation (Cabarceno, Northern Spain). International journal of biometeorology, 65(8), 1357-1366. google scholar
  • Rossello, J., & Santana-Gallego, M. (2014). Recent trends in international tourist climate preferences: A revised picture for climatic change scenarios. Climatic Change, 124(1-2), 119132. doi:10.1007/s10584-014-1086-3 google scholar
  • Rozbicka, K., & Rozbicki, T. (2020). Long-term variability of bioclimatic conditions and tourism potential for Warsaw agglomeration (Poland). International Journal of Biometeorology, 1-11. google scholar
  • Rutty, M., & Andrey, J. (2014). Weather forecast use for winter recreation. Weather, Climate, and Society, 6(3), 293-306. google scholar
  • Salata, F., Golasi, I., Petitti, D., de Lieto Vollaro, E., Coppi, M., & de Lieto Vollaro, A. (2017). Relating microclimate, human thermal comfort and health during heat waves: An analysis of heat island mitigation strategies through a case study in an urban outdoor environment. Sustainable Cities and Society, 30, 79-96. google scholar
  • Santos Nouri, A., Costa, J. P., Santamouris, M., & Matzarakis, A. (2018). Approaches to outdoor thermal comfort thresholds through public space design: A review. Atmosphere, 9(3), 108. google scholar
  • Scott, D., Gossling, S., and de Freitas, C.R. (2008). Preferred climates for tourism: case studies from Canada, New Zealand and Sweden. Climate Research, 38, 61-73. google scholar
  • Scott, D., Hall, M, and Gossling, S. (2012). Tourism and climate change impacts, adaptation and mitigation. New York, NY: Routledge. google scholar
  • Scott, D., & Jones, B. (2006). The impact of climate change on golf participation in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA): a case study. Journal of Leisure Research, 38(3), 363-380. google scholar
  • Scott, D., Rutty, M., Amelung, B., & Tang, M. (2016). An inter-comparison of the holiday climate index (HCI) and the tourism climate index (TCI) in Europe. Atmosphere, 7(6), 80. google scholar
  • Sharmin, T., & Steemers, K. (2020). Effects of microclimate and human parameters on outdoor thermal sensation in the high-density tropical context of Dhaka. International journal of biometeorology, 64(2), 187-203. google scholar
  • Sheridan, S.C (2002). The redevelopment of a weather-type classification scheme for North America. Int J Climatol 22(1):51-68. google scholar
  • Talhi, A., Barlet, A., Bruneau, D., & Aichour, B. (2020). Towards a prediction of outdoor human thermal comfort adapted for designers of urban spaces: examining UTCI and APCI in the context of Algiers (Algeria). International journal of biometeorology, 64(4), 651-662. google scholar
  • United States Census Bureau. (2012) “Combined Statistical Areas of the United States and Puerto Rico” google scholar
  • Wang, B., & Yi, Y. K. (2021). Developing an adapted UTCI (Universal Thermal Climate Index) for the elderly population in China’s severe cold climate region. Sustainable Cities and Society, 69, 102813. google scholar
  • Wilson, J. (2011). The distribution of climate and weather information for tourism in New Zealand. google scholar
  • Zirulia, L. (2016). Should I stay or should I go?’ Weather forecasts and the economics of ‘short breaks. Tourism Economics, 22(4), 837-846. google scholar


Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın



Perkins, D.R. (2021). Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate. Journal of Tourismology, 7(2), 195-225.


Perkins D R. Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate. Journal of Tourismology. 2021;7(2):195-225.


Perkins, D.R. Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate. Journal of Tourismology, [Publisher Location], v. 7, n. 2, p. 195-225, 2021.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Perkins, David R.,. 2021. “Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate.” Journal of Tourismology 7, no. 2: 195-225.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Perkins, David R.,. Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate.” Journal of Tourismology 7, no. 2 (Feb. 2023): 195-225.

Harvard: Australian Style

Perkins, DR 2021, 'Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate', Journal of Tourismology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 195-225, viewed 3 Feb. 2023,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Perkins, D.R. (2021) ‘Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate’, Journal of Tourismology, 7(2), pp. 195-225. (3 Feb. 2023).


Perkins, David R.,. Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate.” Journal of Tourismology, vol. 7, no. 2, 2021, pp. 195-225. [Database Container],


Perkins DR. Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate. Journal of Tourismology [Internet]. 3 Feb. 2023 [cited 3 Feb. 2023];7(2):195-225. Available from: doi: 10.26650/jot.2021.7.2.967896


Perkins, DavidR.. Thermal Environments and Visitor Attendance in Zoological Parks: Observations in A Humid Continental Climate”. Journal of Tourismology 7/2 (Feb. 2023): 195-225.


Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma27.12.2021


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.