Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692   IUP :10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692    Tam Metin (PDF)

Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals

Yaser JobranGökhan Kara

An increase in container traffic, larger tonnage of vessels, scarcity of port area, and shorter turnaround times have driven terminals to process more containers in less time and less space. Thereby, the increasing focus on costs, safety, and environmental control is forcing terminal operators to search for innovative solutions. Automated container terminals are the potential candidates to improve the performance of container terminals and represent a challenge to any subsequent future fluctuations in maritime transport. In this study, we examine the improvement in the performance of container ports by adopting automation through simulation modeling. The effect of the automated guided vehicles and automatic stacking cranes-based automatic container terminal system (AGV-ACT/Automated Guided Vehicles - Automatic Container Terminal system) on container handling operations was evaluated. To create a complete port simulation model, the main objects of the container terminal such as tugboats, berths, quay cranes, stacking blocks, stacking cranes, horizontal transport vehicles, external trucks, and the layout of the terminal are simulated as a whole. Firstly, we created a model representing the existing port to evaluate the overall performance of the port and to validate the simulation model by comparing the actual data with those of the real system. Then, a simulation model for the proposed automatic system was created and evaluated. The simulation model was divided into four main logics: ships arrival and berth allocation, ship loading/unloading, external trucks arrival, and containers storage/retrieval logic. The results of the two systems were compared based on the performance criteria such as ship turnaround time, external trucks turnaround time, and equipment utilization rate. Automation has reduced the turnaround time of the ships and provided a smooth movement for the equipment which showed a high utilization rate. The automated system decreased the ship turnaround time from 9.52 hours to 7.81 hours (18%). The reduction in the waiting times of the container transport vehicles for quay cranes reached 47% and 30% in berths 1 and 2, respectively. On the other hand, external trucks’ turnaround time increased by 124% as only one ASC (Automatic Stacking Crane) is run in each block to perform both seaside and landside operations (seaside operations were prioritized). Automation has improved the overall performance of the terminal. Also, the layout of the automated handling system raised the storage capacity of the port. In the new proposed automated layout, the storage area capacity increased by 27.27%.


PDF Görünüm

Referanslar

  • Ioannou, P., 2008, Intelligent Freight Transportation, CRC Press: Taylor & Francis Group LLC, USA, ISBN: 13: 978-0-8493-0770-6. google scholar
  • Martm-Soberon, A.M., Monfort, A., Sapina, R., Monterde, N. and Calduch, D., 2014, Automation in Port Container Terminals, Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 160 (2014), 195-204. google scholar
  • Saanen, Y., 2003, The Design and Assessment of Next Generation Automated Container Terminals, 15th European Simulation Symposium, 2003 CS European Council / SCS Europe, ISBN 3-936150-28-1. google scholar
  • Saanen, A.Y., 2004, An Approach for Designing Robotized Marine Container Terminals, Thesis (PhD), Delft University of Technology. google scholar
  • Container-xchange . [cited 2021 25 April]; Available from: https://container-xchange.com/blog/container-terminal-automation/. google scholar
  • Kim, K.H., Thi Phan, M. and Woo, Y.J., 2012, New Conceptual Handling Systems in Container Terminals, Industrial Engineering & Management Systems, 11 (4), 299-309. google scholar
  • Rademaker, W.C.A., 2007, Container Terminal Automation Feasibility of Terminal Automation for mid-sized Terminals, Thesis (Master), Delft University of Technology. google scholar
  • Liu, C., Jula, H. and Ioannou, P., 2002, Design, Simulation, and Evaluation of Automated Container Terminals, IEEE Transactions On Intelligent Transportation Systems, 3 (1), 12-26. google scholar
  • Ballis, A., Golias, J. and Abakoumkin, C., 1997, A Comparison Between Conventional and Advanced Handling Systems for Low Volume Container Maritime Terminals, MARIT. POL. MGMT., 24 (1), 73-92. google scholar
  • City of Los Angeles, Harbor Department Planning and Economic Development Division, Container Terminal Automation; 2014. google scholar
  • DP World. [cited 2021 25 March]; Available from: https://safety4sea.com/dp-world-celebrates-for-brisbane-terminal/. google scholar
  • Altiok, T. and Melamed, B., 2007, Simulation Modeling and Analysis With Arena, Elsevier Inc., USA, ISBN 10: 0-12-370523-1. google scholar
  • D. Rossetti M., 2016, Simulation Modeling and Arena, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons Inc., Publication, New Jersey and Canada, ISBN 13: 978-0-12-370523-5. google scholar
  • Kelton, D., Sadowski, R. and Swets, N., 2010, Simulation With Arena, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Publications, Singapore, ISBN: 978-007-126771-7. google scholar
  • Kamal, B., Kara, G., ve Okşaş, O., 2020, An Application of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process to Overcapacity Absorbing Methods in Container Shipping. International Journal of Maritime Engineering, 162 (331-344). google scholar
  • Kamal, B., 2019, Deniz Taşımacılığında Risk Sermayesi, Kent Akademisi,Volume, 12 (39), Issue 3 (618-633). google scholar
  • Yanga, Y. and Shen, K., 2013, Comparison of The Operating Performance of Automated and Traditional Container Terminals, International Journal of Logistics: Research and Applications, 16 (2), 158-173. google scholar
  • Rockwell Automation, 2014, User’s Guide: Getting Started With Arena, Rockwell Automation, Inc., USA. google scholar
  • Rockwell Automation, 2014, User’s Guide: OptQuest for Arena, Rockwell Automation, Inc., USA. google scholar
  • Rockwell Automation, 2014, User’s Guide: Variables Guide, Rockwell Automation, Inc., USA. google scholar
  • UNCTAD., 2018, Review of Maritime Transport 2018. United Nations publication. Sales No. E.18. II. D.5. New York & Geneva. google scholar
  • Yanga, Y., Zhonga, M., Dessoukyb, Y. and Postolache, O., 2018, An Integrated Scheduling Method forAGV Routing in Automated Container Terminals, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 126 (2018), 482-493. google scholar
  • Luo, J., Wu, Y. and Mendes, A.B., 2016, Modelling of Integrated Vehicle Scheduling and Container Storage Problems in Unloading Process at an Automated Container Terminal, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 94 (2016), 32-44. google scholar
  • Luo, J. and Wu, Y., 2015, Modelling of Dual-Cycle Strategy for Container Storage and Vehicle Scheduling Problems at Automated Container Terminals, Transportation Research Part E, 79 (2015), 49-64. google scholar
  • Lau, Y.K.H. and Zhao, Y., 2008, Integrated Scheduling of Handling Equipment at Automated Container Terminals, Int. J. Production Economics, 112 (2008), 665-682. google scholar
  • Vis, F.A.I. and Harika, I., 2004, Comparison of Vehicle Types at an Automated Container Terminal, OR Spectrum, 26 (2004), 117-143. google scholar
  • Grunow, M., Günther, H. and Lehmann, M., 2004, Dispatching Multi-Load AGVs in Highly Automated Seaport Container Terminals, OR Spectrum, 26(2004), 211-235. google scholar

Atıflar

Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın


DIŞA AKTAR



APA

Jobran, Y., & Kara, G. (2022). Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals. Journal of Transportation and Logistics, 7(1), 137-155. https://doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692


AMA

Jobran Y, Kara G. Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals. Journal of Transportation and Logistics. 2022;7(1):137-155. https://doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692


ABNT

Jobran, Y.; Kara, G. Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals. Journal of Transportation and Logistics, [Publisher Location], v. 7, n. 1, p. 137-155, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Jobran, Yaser, and Gökhan Kara. 2022. “Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals.” Journal of Transportation and Logistics 7, no. 1: 137-155. https://doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692


Chicago: Humanities Style

Jobran, Yaser, and Gökhan Kara. Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals.” Journal of Transportation and Logistics 7, no. 1 (Dec. 2022): 137-155. https://doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692


Harvard: Australian Style

Jobran, Y & Kara, G 2022, 'Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals', Journal of Transportation and Logistics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 137-155, viewed 7 Dec. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Jobran, Y. and Kara, G. (2022) ‘Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals’, Journal of Transportation and Logistics, 7(1), pp. 137-155. https://doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692 (7 Dec. 2022).


MLA

Jobran, Yaser, and Gökhan Kara. Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals.” Journal of Transportation and Logistics, vol. 7, no. 1, 2022, pp. 137-155. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692


Vancouver

Jobran Y, Kara G. Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals. Journal of Transportation and Logistics [Internet]. 7 Dec. 2022 [cited 7 Dec. 2022];7(1):137-155. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692 doi: 10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692


ISNAD

Jobran, Yaser - Kara, Gökhan. Examining the Efficiency of Automation in Container Terminals”. Journal of Transportation and Logistics 7/1 (Dec. 2022): 137-155. https://doi.org/10.26650/JTL.2022.1039692



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim21.12.2021
Kabul19.02.2022
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma31.05.2022

LİSANS


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


PAYLAŞ




İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.