Araştırma Makalesi

DOI :10.26650/JTL.2022.1035565   IUP :10.26650/JTL.2022.1035565    Tam Metin (PDF)

What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports

Elif Koç

Seaports are nodal points in global supply chains. Industry 4.0 applications, which have entered our lives with the rapid technological developments, are also seen in the port sector. The use of Industry 4.0 technologies started in container ports first, and applications were predominantly encountered in this type of ports. The aim of the study was to investigate the nature of digital technologies in container ports and to reveal the major barriers to the adoption of Industry 4.0 in Turkish container ports. First, extant literature was reviewed, and the main obstacles to the adoption of Industry 4.0 were determined. Later, considering the literature findings, in-depth interviews were conducted with port managers. Then, content analysis was performed by examining transcripts and notes taken during the interviews using a professional computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software, MAXQDA-12. According to the findings, four main difficulties were identified as technological, operational, legal, and organizational difficulties. Operational barriers were revealed to be industry-related obstacles. Technological and operational challenges were the most frequently mentioned ones by the participants. Finally, the findings of the study were discussed, and suggestions were proposed to overcome those obstacles.

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Koç, E. (2022). What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports. Journal of Transportation and Logistics, 7(2), 367-386.


Koç E. What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports. Journal of Transportation and Logistics. 2022;7(2):367-386.


Koç, E. What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports. Journal of Transportation and Logistics, [Publisher Location], v. 7, n. 2, p. 367-386, 2022.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Koç, Elif,. 2022. “What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports.” Journal of Transportation and Logistics 7, no. 2: 367-386.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Koç, Elif,. What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports.” Journal of Transportation and Logistics 7, no. 2 (Jul. 2024): 367-386.

Harvard: Australian Style

Koç, E 2022, 'What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports', Journal of Transportation and Logistics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 367-386, viewed 18 Jul. 2024,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Koç, E. (2022) ‘What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports’, Journal of Transportation and Logistics, 7(2), pp. 367-386. (18 Jul. 2024).


Koç, Elif,. What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports.” Journal of Transportation and Logistics, vol. 7, no. 2, 2022, pp. 367-386. [Database Container],


Koç E. What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports. Journal of Transportation and Logistics [Internet]. 18 Jul. 2024 [cited 18 Jul. 2024];7(2):367-386. Available from: doi: 10.26650/JTL.2022.1035565


Koç, Elif. What Are The Barriers to the Adoption of Industry 4.0 in Container Terminals? A Qualitative Study on Turkish Ports”. Journal of Transportation and Logistics 7/2 (Jul. 2024): 367-386.


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