İdare Hukukunun İşlevine Yönelik Bir Yaklaşım: “Trafik Işığı Metaforu”Harun Yılmaz
Genel olarak idare hukuku, idarenin görev, yetki ve teşkilat yapısı ile hukuka aykırılıklara karşı öngörülen denetim mekanizmalarını düzenleyen kuralları ele almaktadır. Doktrinde idare hukukunun işlevine ilişkin ise, idarenin denetim altında tutulması ve kamu hizmetlerinin etkin şekilde yerine getirilmesine katkı sunulması olmak üzere iki temel anlayış ortaya konulmaktadır. Bu anlayışlar, idare hukukunun işlevine dair geliştirilmiş trafik ışığı metaforunu oluşturan iki önemli teori olarak kırmızı ışık ve yeşil ışık teorilerinin esasını teşkil etmektedir. Söz konusu teorilerden kırmızı ışık teorisi, idarenin yargısal denetimini merkeze alırken; yeşil ışık teorisi, demokratik veya siyasi hesap verebilirlik biçimlerini ön plana çıkararak idare hukukunun faaliyetleri kolaylaştırıcı rolüne dikkat çekmektedir. Bu iki teorinin yanı sıra kabul edilen sarı ışık teorisi ise, yargısal denetimin önemini göz ardı etmemekle birlikte, yapılacak denetimler ile bireylerin ihtiyaçlarının karşılanması amacı arasında bir denge kurulması gerekliliğine vurgu yapmaktadır. Çalışmada idare hukukunun işlevine yönelik bir yaklaşım olarak trafik ışığı metaforunu oluşturan kırmızı ışık, yeşil ışık ve sarı ışık teorileri incelenecektir.
An Approach to the Function of Administrative Law: “The Traffic-Light Metaphor”Harun Yılmaz
Administrative law typically deals with the rules governing the duties, powers and organizational structure of the administration and the control mechanisms prescribed against illegalities. In the doctrine, there are two basic approaches related to the function of administrative law: keeping the administration under supervision and contributing to the effective provision of public services. These approaches constitute the basis of the red light and green light theories as two important theories that form the traffic-light metaphor developed for the function of administrative law. While the red light theory puts the judicial control of the administration at the center, the green light theory draws attention to the role of administrative law in facilitating activities by emphasizing the forms of democratic or political accountability. In addition to these two theories, while the accepted amber light theory does not ignore the importance of judicial supervision, it emphasizes the need to establish a balance between supervision to be conducted and the purpose of meeting the needs of individuals. In this study, the red light, green light and amber light theories, which constitute the traffic-light metaphor, will be examined as an approach to the function of administrative law.
Administrative law, a branch of law that regulates the decision-making and rulemaking activities of administrative authorities, typically deals with the structures, duties and powers of administrative units on a large scale, as well as the methods and procedures that these units follow in the course of their activities, and their supervision. As for the function of administrative law, two main approaches are emphasized in the doctrine, namely, protecting the rights and interests of individuals and contributing to the effective provision of public services. In the doctrine, British public lawyers Carol Harlow and Richard Rawlings developed “the traffic-light metaphor” as an approach to the function of administrative law. In their traffic- light metaphor, while Harlow and Rawlings acknowledge the existence of “amber-light theory”, in terms of the function of administrative law, they basically put forth two theories, which are “red-light theory” and “green-light theory”. Red light theory, developed for the function of administrative law, defends the strong role of judicial supervision in investigating the activities of administrative authorities. The main goal of the red light theory is to control the activities of the administration in order to protect the rights and freedoms of individuals. At the heart of the said control is judicial control, which is conducted through the courts. In contrast to the red light theory, the green light theory argues that the function of administrative law is to facilitate the functioning of the administration, with the belief that administrative authorities will operate most efficiently when outside interventions are minimized. According to the green light theory, which provides a social and democratic perspective for the activities of the state –more specifically for the administration– administrative law should play a facilitating and auxiliary role for the administration in order to meet the needs of individuals and increase their satisfaction. The main purpose of the amber light theory as a third theory is to enable the effective implementation of democratic and political control mechanisms as well as judicial control. In amber light theory, the importance of judicial supervision, which forms the basis of red light theory, is not denied, but it is argued that the role of this supervision should be limited. This is because the strict approach of the judiciary in the face of the increasing needs of society may harm the administration›s duty to meet the needs of individuals by operating effectively. From this point of view, the amber light theory points on the one hand to the importance of judicial control as in the red light theory, while on the other hand, it emphasizes the need to balance the supervision to be conducted for the purpose of meeting the needs of individuals as required, which is the target of green light theory It should be noted that administrative law should have a function to ensure that the rights and freedoms of individuals are secured by keeping the administration within the boundaries of the law through the control mechanisms of the administration, while facilitating the proper fulfillment of the needs of individuals. Based on this, it can be said that the two inseparable functions of administrative law are to contribute to the proper provision of services as well as keeping the administration under control. Therefore, the ideal situation, “as accepted in the amber light theory”, is that administrative law has a structure capable of performing both functions.