Sözleşmesel Çerçevede Meydana Gelen Müteselsil Borçlulukta Borçlu TemerrüdüDavut Armağan
Bir borç ilişkisinin borçlu tarafında birden fazla borçlu yer alabilir. Alacaklı karşısında birden fazla borçlunun yer alabildiği hallerden biri de müteselsil borçluluk halidir. Müteselsil borçluluk borç altına giren tarafların iradesinden kaynaklanabileceği gibi, kanunlarda müteselsil borçluluğa ilişkin kabul edilmiş düzenlemelerden de kaynaklanabilir. Borçluların sözleşmesel bir ilişki çerçevesinde alacaklı karşısında müteselsil borçlu olmaları, iradelerini bu yönde ortaya koymaları halinde meydana gelebilir. Öte yandan tarafların bu yönde açık bir iradeleri olmasa dahi kanun gereği sözleşmesel çerçevede müteselsil borçlu olma gündeme gelebilir. Bütün bu hallerde sözleşmesel olarak alacaklıya karşı borç altına giren müteselsil borçluların edimlerini zamanında ifa etmemeleri mümkündür. Bu durumda müteselsil borçluların temerrüdü söz konusu olur. Müteselsil borçluların temerrüdü bakımından temel kural, bunun şartları ve sonuçlarının her bir borçlu bakımından bağımsız olarak değerlendirilmesidir. Ancak bu temel kuralın istisnaları da bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, sözleşmesel çerçevede meydana gelen müteselsil borçlulukta müteselsil borçlunun/borçluların temerrüdünün gerçekleşme şartlarının neler olduğunun tespiti ve müteselsil borçlulardan birinin, birkaçının veya tamamının temerrüdü halinde bu temerrüdün sonuçlarının neler olduğunun incelenmesidir.
Debtor’s Default in Joint Indebtedness which Occurs within A Contractual FrameworkDavut Armağan
More than one debtor can take part at the debtor side in a debt relationship. One of the situations where more debtor takes part against the creditor is the joint indebtedness. Joint indebtedness can arise from the will of binding parties as well as the regulations regarding joint indebtedness. Becoming joint debtors against a creditor within a framework of contractual relationship can occur when debtors reveal their wills in this direction. Furthermore, becoming joint debtors in a contractual framework can occur also by law, even if joint debtors do not have such will. It is possible that the joint debtors do not perform on time who incurs a contractual debt. In such cases, default of joint debtors is in question. Independent consideration of conditions and results of the default of joint debtors is the main rule. But there are also exceptions about this main rule. The aim of this work is the determination of the conditions of the default of joint debtor/debtors in joint indebtedness, which occurs within a contractual framework and examination of the results of the default when one, some or all of joint debtors incur in default.
All debtors are liable for all of the obligations in joint indebtedness. Also, the creditor has the right to claim this from one, some or all of the debtors. Joint indebtedness can arise from the regulations or wills of the parties. The coming together of joint debtors in a contractual framework also can arise from both the regulations and wills of the parties. In all these cases, if joint debtors do not perform on time, then default of joint debtors is mentioned. Obligations of joint debtors are relatively independent from each other. As a result of this, principally action of a joint debtor has effect only on that joint debtor. Accordingly, default of a joint debtor has only effect only on this debtor who is in default. But exceptionally, it is possible that the parties can agree that responsibility of all joint debtors from the results of default of a particular joint debtor. Obligations of joint debtors can fall due on different dates, and accordingly, default dates can differ when performance times of joint debtors are different from each other. If one of the joint debtors has a right to avoid performance, this prevents this debtor from debtor’s default. Notice principally causes the default of the debtor who has received notice. But a contra agreement regarding this is also possible. If there is a situation which makes notice unnecessary for a joint debtor, this debtor falls into default without a notice. The performance of the obligation must be possible for the occurrence of the default. If the object of the performance is impossible in terms of all debtors, all debtors get out of their debts. If the object of performance becomes impossible with a fault of a joint debtor, all joint debtors must be responsible de lege ferenda. If one of the joint debtors puts a creditor to creditor’s default, other joint debtors also benefit from this situation. Compensation of delay, which is a general result of debtor’s default, can only be demanded from the joint debtor who is in default. If more than one joint debtor falls in default because of their fault, these are jointly responsible for the compensation of delay. Even if one joint debtor who does not fall in default, distinguishes obligation with performance, compensation of delay can still be demanded from the joint debtor who falls in default. If a force majeure or fortuitous events occur during the period of default of one joint debtor, this joint debtor is responsible for this situation. If the same situation occurs during the period of default of more than one joint debtor, these are jointly responsible. If one of the joint debtors of a pecuniary obligation falls into default, this debtor is obliged to pay interest for the default. If more than one joint debtor falls into default, these are jointly responsible. But at this point, default dates, interest rates and the capital debt have importance. Because according to these elements, the amount of interest for default can differ. Therefore, a distinction must be made during the consideration of the jointly responsible parts of the debt. If the creditor still has a damage which does not compensate with the interest for default, it can be claimed from the joint debtor who falls into default with fault. In bilateral contracts the creditor, who wants extra rights to benefit, should give an extra period of time to the joint debtor who falls into default. This time periods must be reasonable for each joint debtor. It can be situations in which the creditor should give an extra period of time to some joint debtors while it is not necessary to give to the others, according to TCO Art. 123. When the creditor makes choice, this has only effect for the joint debtor which this right turns to. Compensation for damage for non-performance can only be demanded from the joint debtor who falls into default with fault. If other join debtors who do not fall into default, distinguish the obligation, this compensation cannot be demanded from the debtor who is in default. If more than one joint debtor falls into default with fault, these joint debtors are responsible for the compensation for damage for nonperformance of obligation. Withdrawal from the contract is possible when all joint debtors incur in default. The creditor must declare his withdrawal will to all joint debtors.