Araştırma Makalesi


DOI :10.26650/oba.1247906   IUP :10.26650/oba.1247906    Tam Metin (PDF)

İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde

Erdem Bagatur

Bu çalışmanın amacı, Max Clara’nın (1899–1966) İstanbul’daki yaşamının son dönemini (1950–1966) ve buradaki bilimsel faaliyetlerini incelemektir. Clara’nın nasyonal sosyalist dönemdeki ve öncesindeki kariyeri ayrıntılı olarak ortaya konulmuştur, ancak savaş sonrası dönemde akademik hayattan uzaklaştırılmasını izleyen son yılları, eski meslektaşları ve akademik dünya ile olan ilişkileri hakkında neredeyse hiçbir bilgi mevcut değildir. Bu çalışmada, Max Clara’nın İstanbul’daki hayatı, İstanbul Üniversitesi Arşivi’ndeki birincil kaynaklara dayandırılarak belgelenmiştir. Arşiv belgeleri, İstanbul Üniversitesi’nin tarihi ve Türkiye’deki mülteci akademisyenler hakkında mevcut literatür, Clara hakkındaki literatür ve Clara’nın yayınlarının analizleriyle desteklenmiştir. Ayrıca, Clara’nın Almanya’dan getirdiği histolojik ve anatomik materyal alındığı nasyonal sosyalist dönem kurbanlarının kimliklerine ulaşmak amacıyla bulunmaya çalışılmıştır. Max Clara’nın İstanbul yıllarında hayatı, akademik çalışmaları ve dış dünya ile ilişkileri açık ve kapsamlı bir şekilde gün ışığına çıkarılmıştır. Ancak üç bölüme ayrılan histolojik ve anatomik materyaline, materyalin yeni sahipleri olan üniversiteler ve öğretim üyelerinin isteksizliği nedeniyle ulaşılamamıştır. Clara’nın nasyonal sosyalist dönemde mahkumlar üzerinde tıbbi deneyler ve idam edilenlerin etik olmayan bir şekilde temin edilen bedenlerini kullanma gibi etik olmayan uygulamalara karıştığı ayrıntılarıyla ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Akademik yayınlarının analizi, kendi içlerinde büyük tutarsızlıklar ve çarpıtmalar olduğunu ve bu yayınların sanıldığı kadar önemli olmadığını ortaya koymuştur. 

DOI :10.26650/oba.1247906   IUP :10.26650/oba.1247906    Tam Metin (PDF)

A Nazi Doctor in Istanbul: Max Clara and the Search for Victims of Medical Terror

Erdem Bagatur

The present study aims to examine Max Clara’s (1899–1966) life and his scientific activities in Istanbul between 1950-1966. Clara’s career before and during the National Socialist era has been extensively studied. However, information is lacking regarding his later years and his relationships with his old colleagues and the academic world after being dismissed from academic life in the postwar period. This article presents information about Max Clara’s life in Istanbul based on primary sources kept at the Istanbul University Archives. Archival documents were supplemented by analyses on literature about the history of Istanbul University, refugee scholars in Turkey, Max Clara’s life, and his publications. Furthermore, the study attempted to find the histological and anatomical material Dr. Clara had brought with him from Germany in order to identify the National Socialist era victims from whom the materials had been harvested. This article clearly and extensively brings Max Clara’s life, academic work, and relations with the outside world during his Istanbul years into light. However, his histological and anatomical collection, which was divided into three parts after his passing, could not be accessed due to the reluctance the relevant institutions, faculty members, and new owners of the materials had. This study also deals with Clara’s involvement in unethical practices during the National Socialist era, such as medical experiments on prisoners and the use of the unethically procured bodies of the executed. The analysis of his academic publications reveals that they involved great inconsistencies and distortions and that these publications were not as important as was thought.


GENİŞLETİLMİŞ ÖZET


World War II not only brought the horrors of war but also unimaginable medical atrocities and crimes against humanity. Along with the racist policies that eventually led to the Holocaust, terrible medical experiments had been carried out on prisoners in the name of the advancement of medicine and scientific research, with even the corpses of the executed being abused to that end. Institutionalized criminal medical practices in the name of public health, eugenics, and scientific research was one of the priorities of the Nazi regime. Medicine was diverted from the right path by the state, and political and social pressures had completely corrupted medical values. Without the apparent voluntary contributions of medical doctors, formulating, directing, implementing, and benefiting from Nazi policies would have been completely impossible. During the period between Nazi’s ascension to power and the start of World War II (1933-1939), the path to creating a new society consisting of individuals with pure Aryan blood who were physically healthy and productive and mentally committed to the National Socialist morality first occurred through inappropriate medical policies. In retrospect, German doctors had obviously not been forced into committing crimes. They had been very active, willing, and eager to participate in irrational acts and medical crimes under the guise of scientific research and served the Nazi ideology without question. They knew the experiments they were conducting violated every standard of moral research on humans.

Although these medical crimes physicians committed are believed today to be unlikely to be repeated, reality may not be so. Today, physicians and other health personnel are known to exist who torture or direct the torture of detainees, especially those working with intelligence agencies. The horrors and medical crimes of World War II must be told and retold to honor and commemorate the victims of the Nazi regime in order to promote the basic humanism of medicine in a world where genocide and state-mandated and doctor-supervised torture and executions continue.

As one member of the Nazi Party and a symbol of Nazi medical crimes, Dr. Max Clara (1899-1966) spent the last part of his life as a lecturer at Istanbul University. The present study examines the last period of Max Clara’s life in Istanbul (1950-1966), as well as his scientific activities, and shows that ethical violations continued even years after the war and the Doctors’ Trial in Nuremburg. Max Clara’s life in Istanbul was documented based on primary sources in the Istanbul University Archives. Archival documents have been supplemented by the existing literature on the history of Istanbul University, on refugee academicians in Turkey, on Max Clara’s life, and on an analysis of his publications.

Carrying out medical procedures on dead bodies without the consent of the person or their relatives is an unethical medical crime, just as is conducting experiments on living people without their consent. Unbeknownst to prisoners who were to be executed, Clara had given them vitamin C beforehand and removed various organs immediately after the execution to conduct research on how vitamin C had been distributed in these organs in his laboratory. However, this mode of action in its mildest form involves cooperating with murderers and is morally reprehensible.

Following the war, Clara moved to Istanbul in 1950 because he had been unable to find an academic position in Germany, thus bringing samples from the executed prisoners and continuing to work on them. The current study also attempted to access the histological and anatomical material that Clara had brought from Germany, but to no avail. Separated into three parts, the materials could not be accessed due to the reluctance of the universities and faculty members who currently own them. If the material had been able to be accessed, victims from the National Socialist period could have been identified as well.

This work reveals in detail Clara’s involvement in unethical practices during the National Socialist era, such as medical experiments on prisoners and the use of unethically supplied bodies of the executed. In addition, the analysis of his academic publications reveals great inconsistencies and distortions to be present and these publications to not be as important as was thought.

Max Clara left a strong long-lasting mark on Turkish medicine as an educator and scientist. Upon looking back 55 years after his death, however, he obviously was not the innocent, hard-working scientist he pretended to be. Perhaps Clara had not joined his colleagues in experiments in concentration camps, euthanasia killings, or racial hygiene implementations because he was a histologist. However, he has been revealed to have possessed the same mindset as them through the vitamin C research he had carried out on death row victims. Max Clara stands out as a historical figure who should be scrutinized for his careerist machinations and unethical research which has become more and more evident and concrete with the critical reading of his publications. What happened in Nazi Germany can happen anytime and anywhere, because science and medicine have never been apolitical.


PDF Görünüm

Referanslar

  • İstanbul Üniversitesi Rektörlüğü Personel Dairesi Arşivi (İÜA). Clara, Max. Personel Dosya No: 4109-577. google scholar
  • Nuran Yıldırım Arşivi. Türkan Erbengi ile Max Clara’nın 4 Nisan 1964 tarihli fotoğrafı. google scholar
  • Adam, Yehuda G. “Aide Memoire - The Role of the German Medical Establishment in the Holocaust: A retrospective on the 60th Anniversary of the Liberation of Auschwitz.” Israel Medical Association Journal 7, 3 (2005):139-142. google scholar
  • Annas, George J. ve Sondra S. Crosby. “Post-9/11 Torture at CIA “Black Sites”- Physicians and Lawyers Working Together.” New England Journal of Medicine 372, 24 (2015): 2279-2281. google scholar
  • Bagatur, Erdem. “Nazi Medicine - Part 1: Musculoskeletal Experimentation on Concentration Camp Prisoners During World War II.” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 476, 10 (2018): 1899-1905. google scholar
  • Bagatur, Erdem. “Max Clara: Sweet Life in Istanbul with a Bitter End 1950-1966 and the Search for Unethically Obtained Tissue Specimens from his Estate in Turkish Collections.” Annals of Anatomy 239 (2022): 151822. google scholar
  • Brenner, Erich, Raffaele De Caro ve Christian Lechner. “Max Clara and Innsbruck - The Origin of a German Nationalist and National Socialist Career.” Annals of Anatomy 234 (2021): 151662. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. “Zur Histobiologie des Bronchalepithels.” Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 41 (1937): 321-347. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. “Beitrage zur Histotopochemie des Vitamin C im Nervensystem des Menschen.” Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 5 (1942): 359-391. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. “İnsan ve Muhtelif Memeli Hayvanların Pankreasında Vitamin-C Üzerinde Histo-topo-şimik İncelemeler.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası 14, 4 (1951): 511-546. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. “Über die Spezifitat des histochemischen Vitamin-C-Nachweises nach Giroud und Leblond.” Mikroskopie 7,11-12 (1952): 387-396. google scholar
  • Clara, Max ve F. Zinnitz. “Über die biologische Wirksamkeit der neutralen Komponente elektroosmotisch getrennten Wassers im Menschen-, Tier- und Pflanzenorganismus.” Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 82, 10 (1952): 260-264. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. “Beitrage zur Morphologie der Resorption im Dünndarm.” Medizinische Monatsschrift 6, 1 (1952): 12-14. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. “Ergebnisse und Probleme des histotopochemischen 1- Ascorbinsaurenachweises unter besonderer Berücksichtigung menschlicher Organe,” Vitamine und Hormone 6 (1953): 12-97. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. Das Nervensystem desMenschen. Lehrbuch für Studierende undÂrzte. Zweite Auflage. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1953. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. “Beitrage zur Morphobiologie des Nucleus supraopticus und Nucleus paraventricularis.” Anatomischer Anzeiger 102, 5-8 (1955): 86-88. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen. Fünfte Auflage. Leipzig: Veb Georg Thieme, 1955. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. Die arterio-venösen Anastomosen, Zweite Auflage. Wien: Springer, 1956. google scholar
  • Clara, Max. “İnsan Testisindeki Leydig hücrelerinin morfolojisi üzerine.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası 24 (1961): 1-41. google scholar
  • Clara, Max ve Üveis Maskar. Histoloji I. İstanbul: Sermet Matbaası, 1961. google scholar
  • Clara, Max ve Üveis Maskar. Histoloji II. İstanbul: Sermet Matbaası, 1970. google scholar
  • Coleman, Raymond. “The impact of histochemistry-a historical perspective.” Acta Histochemica 102, 1 (2000): 5-14. google scholar
  • Crosby, Sondra S. ve Gilbert Benavidez. “From Nuremberg to Guantanamo Bay: Uses of Physicians in the War on Terror.” American Journal of Public Health 108, 1 (2018): 36-41. google scholar
  • Czech, Herwig ve Erich Brenner. “Nazi Victims on the Dissection Table - the Anatomical Institute in Innsbruck.” Annals of Anatomy 226 (2019): 84-95. google scholar
  • Czech, Herwig, Paul Weindling ve Christiane Druml. “From Scientific Exploitation to Individual Memorialization: Evolving Attitudes Towards Research on Nazi Victims’ Bodies.” Bioethics 35, 6 (2021): 508-517. google scholar
  • Dölen, Emre. Türkiye Üniversite Tarihi 3. Darülfünundan Üniversite’ye Geçiş: Tasfiye ve Yeni Kadrolar. İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları, 2010. google scholar
  • Dörner, Klaus, Angelica Ebbinghaus, Karsten Linne, Karl Heinz Roth, ve Paul Weindling. The Nuremberg Medical Trial 1946/47. Transcripts, Material of the Prosecution and Defense, Related Documents. English Edition. Microfiche Edition. Munich: K. G. Saur, 1999. google scholar
  • Ebbinghaus, Angelica. “Introduction: Reflections on the Medical Trial”, The Nuremberg Medical Trial 1946/47. Guide to the Microfiche Edition, editörler Johannes Eltzschic ve Michael Walter içinde 11-64. München: K. G. Saur, 2001. google scholar
  • Ebbinghaus, Angelica ve Karl Heinz Roth. “Die kriegschirurgischen Experimente in den Konzentrationslagern und ihre Hintergründe”, Vernichten undHeilen. DerNürnbergerÂrzteprozefi undseine Folgen, editörler Angelica Ebbinghaus ve Klaus Dörner içinde 189. Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 2001. google scholar
  • Elze, Curt. Anatomie des Menschen. Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ârzte. Dritter Band Centrales Nervensystem. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 1932. google scholar
  • Emmi, Aron, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Erich Brenner ve Raffaele De Caro. “The Academic Career of Max Clara in Padova.” Annals of Anatomy 236 (2021): 151697. google scholar
  • Erbengi, Türkan ve Max Clara. Histoloji Atlası. İkinci Baskı. İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Yayınları, 1979. google scholar
  • Erbengi, Türkan. Yaşamın Gerçekleri: “Ben ve Türkiye’m.” Ankara: Palme Yayıncılık, 2008. google scholar
  • Ernst, Edzard. “A Leading Medical School Seriously Damaged: Vienna 1938.” Annals of Internal Medicine 122, 10 (1995): 789-792. google scholar
  • Fischel, Alfred. Grundriss Der Entwicklung des Menschen. Zweite Auflage. Berlin: Jullus Springer, 1937. google scholar
  • Gössner, Wolfgang. “A Brief History of the Society for Histochemistry: Its Founders, its Mission and the First 50 Years.” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 118, 2 (2002): 91-94. google scholar
  • Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M. “From Nazi Holocaust to Nuclear Holocaust: A Lesson to Learn?,” Lancet 328, 8501 (1986): 271-273. google scholar
  • Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M. “Not a Slippery Slope or Sudden Subversion: German Medicine and National Socialism in 1933.” British Medical Journal 313, 7070 (1996):1453-1463. google scholar
  • Haque, Omar S., Julian De Freitas, Ivana Viani, Bradley Niederschulte, ve Harold J. Bursztajn. “Why Did So Many German Doctors Join the Nazi Party Early?” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35, 5-6 (2012): 473-479. google scholar
  • Heckel, Lothar. “Untersuchungen über das Vorkommen von Vitamin C in der Nebenniere des Menschen.” Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 52 (1942): 393-417. google scholar
  • Hildebrandt, Sabine. “Anatomy in the Third Reich: An Outline, Part 3. The Science and Ethics of Anatomy in National Socialist Germany and Postwar Consequences.” Clinical Anatomy 22, 8 (2009): 906-915. google scholar
  • Hildebrandt, Sabine,ve Christoph Redies. “Anatomy in the Third Reich.” Annals of Anatomy 194, 3 (2012): 225-227. google scholar
  • Hildebrandt, Sabine. “Anatomy in the Third Reich: Careers Disrupted by National Socialist Policies.” Annals of Anatomy 194, 3 (2012): 251-266. google scholar
  • Hildebrandt, Sabine. “Research on Bodies of the Executed in German Anatomy: An Accepted Method that Changed During the Third Reich. Study of Anatomical Journals from 1924 to 1951.” Clinical Anatomy 26, 3 (2013): 304-326. google scholar
  • Hildebrandt, Sabine. “Current Status of Identification of Victims of the National Socialist Regime whose Bodies were Used for Anatomical Purposes.” Clinical Anatomy 4 (2014): 514-536. google scholar
  • İstanbul Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi 1960-61 Stajyerler Albümü, 1961. google scholar
  • Joseph, Jay, ve Norbert A. Wetzel. “Ernst Rüdin: Hitler’s Racial Hygiene Mastermind.” Journal of the History of Biology 46, 1 (2013):1-30. google scholar
  • Maskar, Üveis. “Max Clara (12.2.1899-13.3.1966).” İstanbul Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası 29, 2 (1966):173-189. google scholar
  • Müller, Rolf. “Untersuchungen über das Vorkommen von Vitamin C im Hoden des Menschen.” Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 52 (1942): 440-454. google scholar
  • Riva, M. A., M. Manzoni, G. Isimbaldi, G. Cesana, ve F. Pagni. “Histochemistry: Historical Development and Current Use in Pathology.” Biotechnic & Histochemistry 89,2 (2014): 81-90. google scholar
  • Schiller, Erich. “Über den Fettgehalt der Leber beim gesunden Menschen.” Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung 51 (1942): 309-321. google scholar
  • Schütz, Mathias, Jens Waschke, Georg Marckmann, ve Florian Steger. “The Munich Anatomical Institute under National Socialism. First Results and Prospective Tasks of an Ongoing Research Project.” Annals of Anatomy 195, 4 (2013): 296-302. google scholar
  • Schütz, Mathias, Maximilian Schochow, Jens Waschke, Georg Marckmann, ve Florian Steger. “Anatomische Vitamin C-Forschung im Nationalsozialismus und in der Nachkriegszeit: Max Claras Humanexperimente an der Anatomischen Anstalt München.” Medizinhistorisches Journal 49 ,4 (2014): 330-355. google scholar
  • Schütz, Mathias, Jens Waschke, Georg Marckmann, ve Florian Steger. “Beyond Victimhood. The Struggle of Munich Anatomist Titus von Lanz during National Socialism.” Annals of Anatomy 201 (2015): 56-64. google scholar
  • Seidelman, William E. “Academic Medicine During the Nazi Period: The Implications for Creating Awareness of Professional Responsibility Today,” Medicine After the Holocaust: From the Master Race to the Human Genome and Beyond, editör Sheldon Rubenfeld içinde 29-36. New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2010. google scholar
  • Seidelman, William E. “Dissecting the History of Anatomy in the Third Reich - 1989- 2010: A Personal Account.” Annals of Anatomy 194, 3 (2012): 228-236. google scholar
  • Taatjes, Douglas J., Michael Schrader, Takehiko Koji, ve Jürgen Roth. “Histochemistry and Cell Biology: 61 Years and Not Tired at All.” Histochemistry and Cell Biology 152,1 (2019): 1-11. google scholar
  • Wallraff, Josef. “Histochemische Untersuchungen an den Nebennieren des erwachsenen Menschen.” Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie 34, (1949): 362-427. google scholar
  • Weindling, Paul Julian. Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials: From Medical War Crimes to Informed Consent. New York, NY: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2004. google scholar
  • Weindling, Paul. “Cleansing” Anatomical Collections: The Politics of Removing Specimens from German Anatomical and Medical Collections 1988-92.” Annals of Anatomy 194, 3 (2012): 237-242. google scholar
  • Weindling, Paul. “Collective Burial of Nazi-era Anatomical Specimens.” Lancet 394, 10211 (2019): 1806. google scholar
  • Weindling, Paul, Gerrit Hohendorf, Axel C. Hüntelmann, Jasmin Kindel, Annemarie Kinzelbach, Aleksandra Loewenau, Stephanie Neuner, Michal Adam Palacz, Marion Zingler, ve Herwig Czech. “The Problematic Legacy of Victim Specimens from the Nazi Era: Identifying the Persons Behind the Specimens at the Max Planck Institutes for Brain Research and of Psychiatry. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 30, (2021): 1-22. google scholar
  • Winkelmann, Andreas ve T. Noack. “The Clara Cell: A “Third Reich eponym”?” The European Respiratory Journal 36, 4 (2010): 722-727. google scholar
  • Winkelmann, Andreas. “How the Anatomische Gesellschaft Excluded Unwanted Members After 1945-Among them Eugen Fischer and Max Clara.” Annals of Anatomy 209 (2017): 25-36. google scholar
  • Winkelmann, Andreas. “Traces of Nazi Victims in Hermann Stieve’s Histological Collection.” Annals of Anatomy 237 (2021): 151720. google scholar
  • Yaramancı (Erbengi), Türkan ve Max Clara. Histoloji Atlası. İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Yayınları, 1969. google scholar
  • Yıldırım, Nuran, Hakan Ertin. “İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi Tıp Tarihi Müzesi Koleksiyonu 1933- 2015,” Sağlık Tarihi ve Müzeciliği Sempozyumu Bildiri Kitabı, editör Fatma M. Şen içinde 39-53. İstanbul: Zeytinburnu Belediyesi Kültür Yayınları, 2016. google scholar
  • Zeidman, Lawrence A. “Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part I: Eugenics, Human Experimentation, and Mass Murder.” Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 38, 5 (2011): 696-703. google scholar
  • Zeren, Zeki. “Max Clara Ölmemeliydi; Onu Çok Erken Kaybettik.” İstanbul Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Mecmuası 29, 2 (1966): 195-196. google scholar
  • “CIA’in ‘gelişmiş sorgulama tekniklerini’ tasarlayan psikologlardan biri 11 Eylül Davası’nda ifade verdi: ‘Bugün olsa yine yapardım’.” 22 Ocak 2020. Erişim 5 Ocak 2023. https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-dunya-51206634 google scholar
  • Geni,“VernerLaqueur.”Erişim5Ocak2023.https://www.geni.com/people/Werner-Laqueur/4949974678320010438 google scholar
  • Namal, Arın, “Junge jüdische Emigranten aus Deutschland und Österreich an der Medizinischen Fakultat der Universitat İstanbul im Rahmen der türkischen Universitatsreform von 1933.” Erişim 5 Ocak 2023. https://www.academia.edu/45540324/Junge_j%C3%BCdische_Emigranten_aus_Deutschland_ und_%C3%96sterreich_an_der_Medizinischen_Fakult%C3%A4t_der_Universit%C3%A4t_Istanbul_ im_Rahmen_der_t%C3%BCrkischen_Universit%C3%A4tsreform_von_1933 google scholar
  • Yüksel, Şahika. “Türkiye’de İşkence Yoktur: Lancet’e Mektuplar. 30. yılında 12 Eylül: toplumsal bir travmanın güncel sonuçları.” Türkiye Psikiyatri Derneği Bülteni, 13, 2, 2010. Erişim 5 Ocak 2023. https://psikiyatri.org.tr/uploadFiles/publicationsFile/file/1079_TPDB2_web.pdf google scholar
  • Arın Namal, İstanbul Üniversitesi İstanbul Tıp Fakültesi, kişisel görüşme, 30 Nisan 2021. google scholar
  • Aydın Sav, Acıbadem Üniversitesi Tıp Fakülesi, kişisel görüşme 7 Temmuz 2021. google scholar
  • Mathias Schütz, Münih Ludwig-Maximilians Üniversitesi, kişisel görüşme, 16 Nisan 2021. google scholar
  • Serap Arbak, Acıbadem Üniversitesi Tıp Fakülesi, kişisel görüşme, 30 Mart 2021. google scholar

Atıflar

Biçimlendirilmiş bir atıfı kopyalayıp yapıştırın veya seçtiğiniz biçimde dışa aktarmak için seçeneklerden birini kullanın


DIŞA AKTAR



APA

Bagatur, E. (2023). İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde. Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları, 24(2), 569-610. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1247906


AMA

Bagatur E. İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde. Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları. 2023;24(2):569-610. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1247906


ABNT

Bagatur, E. İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde. Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları, [Publisher Location], v. 24, n. 2, p. 569-610, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Bagatur, Erdem,. 2023. “İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde.” Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları 24, no. 2: 569-610. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1247906


Chicago: Humanities Style

Bagatur, Erdem,. İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde.” Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları 24, no. 2 (Mar. 2024): 569-610. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1247906


Harvard: Australian Style

Bagatur, E 2023, 'İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde', Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 569-610, viewed 3 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1247906


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Bagatur, E. (2023) ‘İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde’, Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları, 24(2), pp. 569-610. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1247906 (3 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Bagatur, Erdem,. İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde.” Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları, vol. 24, no. 2, 2023, pp. 569-610. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1247906


Vancouver

Bagatur E. İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde. Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları [Internet]. 3 Mar. 2024 [cited 3 Mar. 2024];24(2):569-610. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1247906 doi: 10.26650/oba.1247906


ISNAD

Bagatur, Erdem. İstanbul’da Bir Nazi Doktor: Max Clara - Tıp Terörü Kurbanlarının Peşinde”. Osmanlı Bilimi Araştırmaları 24/2 (Mar. 2024): 569-610. https://doi.org/10.26650/oba.1247906



ZAMAN ÇİZELGESİ


Gönderim05.02.2023
Kabul25.05.2023
Çevrimiçi Yayınlanma06.07.2023

LİSANS


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


PAYLAŞ




İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları, uluslararası yayıncılık standartları ve etiğine uygun olarak, yüksek kalitede bilimsel dergi ve kitapların yayınlanmasıyla giderek artan bilimsel bilginin yayılmasına katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır. İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları açık erişimli, ticari olmayan, bilimsel yayıncılığı takip etmektedir.