Detection of Mediterranean Black Widow Spider, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1790) for the First Time in Jordan by DNA Barcoding and a Case of Envenomation Treated with Ferula assa-foetida L. (Apiaceae)Ehab Eid, Hussein Alnasarat, Said Ahmad Damhoureyeh, Sergio Henriques
Objective: The Mediterranean black widow spider; Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1790) could reasonably be regarded by many health practitioners as living solely in Southern Europe. However, its range extends well beyond the Mediterranean, into central Asia, and reaches parts of China. In this article, we detected this species in Jordan for the first time and confirmed the diagnosis by DNA barcoding. This is also the first clinically significant envenomation case in Jordan. Materials and Methods: The spider was identified using DNA analysis which was extracted using a Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit following the standard protocol. PCR reactions were conducted in 20 µL volumes using 1 µL of DNA template, a final concentration of 0.5 µM of each primer. Cycling conditions consisted of an initial activation at 95°C for 15 min, then 35 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 30 s, annealing at 45°C for 30 s and elongation at 72°C for 1 min with a final elongation at 72°C for 10. Successful PCR reactions were cleaned using Clean NA Clean PCR magnetic beads (GC Biotech) using the standard PCR cleanup protocol. Bi-directional sequencing was conducted at Genewiz UK. Results: The species was identified using morphological and molecular data. The clinical process was evaluated including the symptoms, medical treatment, and the use of Ferula assa-foetida as self-medicated traditional medicine. Discussion: The first record of this spider is very important for the contribution of the biodiversity of Jordan. In addition, due to its medical importance, the envenomation case and its treatment with Freula are important for local practitioners. Such medically important animals and related cases need to be documented for public health. It is necessary to recognize the existence of venomous spiders in Jordan, and to study their patterns of bites. We also propose a set of recommendations for communities and local hospitals including the necessity of hospitalization and antivenin administration for patients exhibiting serious symptoms. Conclusion: It is important to document envenomation accidents, symptoms, and treatment protocol. Furthermore, traditional medicine practices should be reported as they can interfere with or even hinder medical treatment. The results of this article will certainly apply to a wider range of countries in the region.