ISSR-Based Population Genetic Structure of Some Turkish Honeybee (Apis mellifera L., 1758) PopulationsÖmer Yüzer, Ersin Doğaç, Alper Tonguç, Evin Günenç
Objective: Apis mellifera, in the order Hymenoptera, are social insects, also known as honey bees. Türkiye has many different honey bee ecotypes and subspecies. Examination of genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of colonies in nine different locations in Türkiye was carried out using ISSR primers.
Materials and Methods: Apis mellifera samples were collected from Çorum, Elazığ, Eskişehir, Kütahya, İzmir, Manisa, Antalya, Samsun, and Muğla. The Lifton method was used for DNA extraction from 180 honey bees. DNA samples were amplified using six ISSR primers.
Results: From the amplification of 180 individuals with 6 ISSR primers, 283 polymorphic loci were identified. Genetic diversity data (Na, Ne, h, I) were obtained for nine populations from 283 loci. In all data on the calculated genetic diversity, the lowest values were found in the Samsun population, and the highest values were found in the Manisa population. The gene flow level calculated from the genetic differentiation value was found to be 0.22.
Conclusion: Genetic diversity has a role in the adaptation of species to changing environmental conditions and it is one of the raw materials of evolution. Herein, we preferred ISSR markers to identify the genetic structure of honey bees. The genetic diversity of honey bees has been found to be lower compared to previous studies. This variability may be a result of the ecological, climatic conditions, and biogeographic differences of Anatolia. The studies to be carried out with more examples from more locations related to honey bees in Türkiye will contribute to the clear identification of the genetic structure of this organism. Additionally, using other marker systems will help to clarify the status of populations in Türkiye.