Dede Korkut Kitabı’nda Geçen balkı- Fiili ÜzerineŞahin Yıldız
Türk edebiyatında önemli bir yere sahip olan Dede Korkut Kitabı, bulunduğu günden itibaren ilgi odağında kalmayı başarmış eserlerden biridir. Oğuzlar hakkında önemli bilgiler içeren eserden doğru bir şekilde yararlanmak adına, eserle ilgili azımsanmayacak sayıda okuma ve anlamlandırma denemeleri yapılmıştır. Eserdeki kelimelerin etimolojisi bu bağlamda ilgi çekmiş ve birçok çalışmaya kaynaklık etmiştir. Bu çalışmada, Dede Korkut Kitabı’nda D207/2’de geçen balkı- ‘parlamak’ fiili ele alınacaktır. Dede Korkut Kitabı’nın Günbed yazmasında balġı- ve balġuolarak da geçen fiilin kökeni ile ilgili kaynaklarda fikir birliği olmadığı görülmüştür. Birçok etimoloji sözlüğünde ele alınmayan kelime, Tietze’nin ve Nişanyan’ın sözlüklerinde ele alınmıştır. balkı- fiili ile ilgili ilk isabetli görüşler Tietze tarafından ortaya atılmıştır. Tietze, kelimeyi Arapça kökenli bark ‘şimşek’ kelimesiyle ilişkilendirmiş ve +ı- isimden fiil yapım eki ile barkı- ˃ balkı- şeklinde geliştiğini ileri sürmüştür. Bu çalışmada kelimenin ilk geçtiği metinlerden günümüz Anadolu ağızlarına kadar şekilsel ve anlamsal serüveni verilmiş ve Tietze’nin etimolojisinin düzeltilmeye muhtaç olduğu kanıtlarıyla birlikte ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır. Böylece kelimenin Tietze’nin belirttiği gibi Türkçede bark ˃ barkı- ˃ balkı- olarak gelişmediği, yer aldığı en eski Türkçe metinlerde balk olarak geçmesi dolayısıyla balk ˃ balkı- ˃ barkı- olarak gelişmiş olduğu görüşü ortaya konulmuştur.
On the Verb balki- in the Book of Dede KorkutŞahin Yıldız
The Book of Dede Korkut has an important place in Turkish literature and is one of the monumental works that have managed to stay in the center of attention since the day it was discovered. In order to benefit from the work, which contains important information about the Oghuz Turks, a substantial number of attempts at reading and interpretating the work have been made. The etymology of the words in this epic has attracted attention in this context and been made the subject of many studies. The current study will discuss the verb balk- [to shine] passed in the D207/2 line in the Book of Dede Korkut. No consensus is seen to exist regarding the sources about the origin of the verb, which is also mentioned as balġı- and balġu- in the Günbed manuscript of the Book of Dede Korkut. The word is not covered in many etymological dictionaries but is discussed in the Tietze and Nişanyan dictionaries. The first correct views on the verb balkı- were put forward by Tietze, who associated the word with the word bark [lightning] of Arabic origin and argued it to have developed as barkı- ˃ balkı- with the denominal verb suffix +ı-. This study presents the morphological and semantic adventure of the word from the first texts to today’s Anatolian dialects and attempts to reveal that Tietze’s etymology needs to be corrected alongside the proofs for this. Thus, the study suggests that the word did not develop in Turkish as bark ˃ barkı- ˃ balkı-, as Tietze had stated, but developed as balk ˃ balkı- ˃ barkı- as the word was written as balk in earlier Turkish texts.
The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most important epics in Turkish literature and one of the few to have been able to remain in the center of the attention of researchers since its discovery. In order to make full and accurate use of the work, which contains important information about the history, culture, sociology and world-view of Oghuz Turks, a significant number of attempts at new readings and interpretations have been made in a short time. The etymology of the words in the stories has also attracted attention in this context and been the source of many studies. The current article discusses the verb balkı-, which is located in the sentence “öteki ḳara ṭaġuŋ bir yanında alnı başı balḳır bir er gördüm” (D207 / 2) in the Dresden copy of the Book of Dede Korkut. The Günbed manuscript of the Book of Dede Korkut shows this word as balġı- and balġu-. No consensus is found in the sources regarding the origin of the verb, which does not occur in many etymological dictionaries. Tatçı mentioned a word change in the form of berk urmak ˃ balkırmak / balkurmak, while Shahgoli et al. who studied the Günbed manuscript of the Book of Dede Korkut, reported that the word may have originated from Old Oghuz Turkish. Etymologically speaking, the word is only found in the Tietze and Nişanyan dictionaries. The information about word provided by Nişanyan is not consistent, while the first accurate views on balkı- were put forward by Tietze, who linked the word to the Arabic word bark [lightning] and tried to show how it had been made with the denominal verb suffix +ı- in the form of barkı- / balkı-. This article presents the formal and semantic adventure of the word, from the early texts to the dialects of Anatolia, and tries to prove the etymology as provided by Tietze needs to be corrected. Thus, the article suggests that Tietze’s statement of the barkı- form of the word being the first form is incorrect and that balkı- form is older, due to being mentioned as balk in the oldest Turkish texts.
In this context, the article begins by mentioning some studies on the Book of Dede Korkut. The section titled On the Verb balkı- provides examples of the use of the verb in Behcetü'l Hadâik, Kıssa-i Yûsuf, Codex Cumanicus, Divan of Yunus Emre, Kısasü'l-Enbiyâ, and Hüsrev ü Şirin, which are the oldest texts in which the verb balkı- is used. Accordingly, the verb is said to have occurred in Turkish texts written as early as the end of the 12th century. The article then goes on to emphasize the derivatives and meanings of the verb balkı-. The section titled balkı- in the Book of Dede Korkut provides information about the sentences in which this verb was included in the work and how researchers have studied the verb balkı-. This section also notes how Schiemede had misread the word as Balkar. The section titled On the Origin of the balkı- stated how the word is used as balġı- and balġu- in the Günbed manuscript through the influence of Azerbaijani Turkish. Because the word is used as balk in the earlier Turkish texts, the article attempts to explain the origin of the verb through balkı-. Afterwards, the researchers views on balkı- were mentioned and Tietze's opinion was discussed. Accordingly and contrary to Tietze’s reasonable opinion, the word has been concluded to not have developed as bark ˃ balk but to have entered Turkish as *belḳ or balḳ, after which it began to be used as balkı- by taking the denominal verb derivation suffix +ı-.