DOI :10.26650/B/SS46.2020.006.05   IUP :10.26650/B/SS46.2020.006.05    Full Text (PDF)

The Effects of the Covid-19 Pandemic On the Tourism Industry

Sevinç GöktepeGürel Çetin

There is a close relationship between contagious diseases and tourism. While, tourism movements result in increased transmission of infections, the spread of the disease may adversely affect the tourism movements. The COVID-19 outbreak differs in terms of its effects and spread for the world economies that have witnessed many epidemic outbreaks before. The COVID-19 pandemic, which started in China and spread rapidly all over the world, has created economic shocks for all industries, but its impact on the tourism industry has been much severe compared to other industries. With the start of implementation national and international travel bans by countries, tourist movements ceased, and the tourism industry faced a sudden and uncertain crisis right before the tourism season. Considering all these effects, this section of the study explores the impacts, measures and forecasts of the pandemic and an evaluation was made in terms of its impacts on the tourism industry


  • Au, A. K., Ramasamy, B., & Yeung, M. C. (2005). The effects of SARS on the Hong Kong tourism industry: An empirical evaluation. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 10(1), 85-95. google scholar
  • Blake, A., & Sinclair, M. T. (2003). Tourism crisis management: US response to September 11. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(4), 813-832. google scholar
  • Boone, L. Haugh, D., Pain N. & Salins, V. (2020). Tackling the fallout from COVID-19. in (Ed: Baldwin, R. and di Mauro, B. W.) Economics in the Time of COVID-19. google scholar
  • COMCEC (2019). Tourism Outlook. Retrieved from Genel_Gorunum/Turizm/Outlook-2018/files/assets/basic-html/page-1.html#, online 12.04.2020. google scholar
  • Çeti, B. & Ünlüönen, K. (2019). Salgın Hastalıklar Sebebiyle Oluşan Krizlerin Turizm Sektörü Üzerindeki Etkisinin Değerlendirilmesi. Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Üniversitesi Turizm Fakültesi Dergisi, 22(2), 109-128. google scholar
  • Findlater, A., & Bogoch, I. I. (2018). Human mobility and the global spread of infectious diseases: a focus on air travel. Trends in parasitology, 34(9), 772-783. google scholar
  • Gu, H., & Wall, G. (2006). The effects of SARS on China’s tourism enterprises. Turizam: međunarodni znanstveno-stručni časopis, 54(3), 225-234. google scholar
  • Güvenek, B., & Alptekin, V. (2015). Turistlere yönelik terör saldırılarının turizme etkisi türkiye üzerine ampirik bir çalışma. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Meslek Yüksek Okulu Dergisi, 17(1), 21-38. google scholar
  • Jayawardena, C., Tew, P. J., Lu, Z., Tolomiczenko, G., & Gellatly, J. (2008). SARS: lessons in strategic planning for hoteliers and destination marketers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 20 No. 3, 332-346. google scholar
  • Joo, H., Maskery, B. A., Berro, A. D., Rotz, L. D., Lee, Y. K., & Brown, C. M. (2019). Economic Impact of the 2015 MERS Outbreak on the Republic of Korea’s Tourism-Related Industries. Health security, 17(2), 100-108. google scholar
  • Mason, P., Grabowski, P., & Du, W. (2005). Severe acute respiratory syndrome, tourism and the media. International Journal of Tourism Research, 7(1), 11-21. google scholar
  • OECD (2020). OECD Interim Economic Assessment Coronavirus: The world economy at risk 2 March 2020. Retrieved from google scholar
  • Pavli, A., Tsiodras, S., & Maltezou, H. C. (2014). Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): prevention in travelers. Travel medicine and infectious disease, 12(6), 602-608. google scholar
  • Pforr, C., & Hosie, P. J. (2008). Crisis management in tourism: Preparing for recovery. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 23(2-4), 249-264. google scholar
  • Tourism Economics (2020). Total Travel Industry Impact. retrieved from COVID-19-travel-industry-research, online 12.04.2020. google scholar
  • Trimble, S. J., Kyte, S. and McDermott H. (2020). Travel & Tourism | Europe Updated Coronavirus impacts and the path to recovery. Retrieved from updated-european-coronavirus-impacts-and-the-path-to-recovery/ google scholar
  • TÜİK (2020). Turizm Geliri, Gideri ve Ortalama Geceleme Sayısı. Turkish Staticsl Institute. Retrieved from google scholar
  • UNWTO (2020a). UNWTO Convenes Global Tourism Crisis Committee All Regions. Retrieved from google scholar
  • UNWTO (2020b). Impact assessment of the COVID-19 outbreak on international tourism. Updated 24 March 2020, Retrieved from google scholar
  • Wen, Z., Huimin, G., & Kavanaugh, R. R. (2005). The impacts of SARS on the consumer behaviour of Chinese domestic tourists. Current Issues in Tourism, 8(1), 22-38. google scholar
  • Wilder-Smith, A. (2006). The severe acute respiratory syndrome: impact on travel and tourism. Travel medicine and infectious disease, 4(2), 53-60. google scholar
  • World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): situation report, 67. Retrieved from pdf?sfvrsn=b65f68eb_4 google scholar
  • WTO (2020). International Tourism Highlights. Retrieved from pdf/10.18111/9789284421152 google scholar
  • WTTC (2020). Coronavirus Brief 21 April 2020. Retrieved from, E.T. 24.04.2020. google scholar
  • Zeng, B., Carter, R. W., & De Lacy, T. (2005). Short-term perturbations and tourism effects: The case of SARS in China. Current Issues in Tourism, 8(4), 306-322. google scholar


Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.