Transnational Islam and Muslim Politics: Policies, Identities, and Ideologies
Ideological Dispute Between Purist Salafis and Islam Nusantara in the Indonesian Islamic Discourse: Jurgen Habermas’ Perspective on Discourse TheoryMuhammad Arif
This study discusses the ideological dispute between purist salafis (transnational Islam) and Islam Nusantara (local Islam) in the Indonesian Islamic discourse. During the Reformation era (1998–2023), purist salafis developed rapidly in Indonesia and even dominated the Internet and social media. Concerned about this, the Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) has suppressed the development of purist salafis. In 2015, NU defined its ideology as Islam Nusantara (an ancient Indonesian name) and purist salafis as transnational Islam, to regard the ideology of NU as indigenous and that of purist Salafism as foreign. Meanwhile, the purist salafis campaign portrayed the ideology of Islam Nusantara as a liberalism project that is different from the Islam of Prophet Muhammad and called their purist salafis Ahlu al Sunnah wa al Jama’ah to attract sympathy as a mainstream ideology in Indonesia, which is interesting. How did the ideological dispute between purist salafis and NU form the Islamic discourse in Indonesia? Can a consensus be reached between them to form an ummah? Results show that reaching a consensus is difficult. The reasons are that both have formed their own Islamic discourse in Indonesia, the NU’s discourse formed over anti-Salafism, and integration of Islam with local culture was stronger than before, whereas the discourse of purist salafis has formed stronger than Islamic purification, anti-liberalism, and anti-Shiah.