Research Article


DOI :10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913   IUP :10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913    Full Text (PDF)

Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia

Melis UzdurumGüneş Duru

Dung is one of the most important research areas of interdisciplinary studies, which can provide insights into the lives of past communities, environmental conditions, and human–animal interactions. In archaeological contexts, animal dung cannot be identified macroscopically in most cases. Hence, new methods and approaches focusing on ways to describe the micro-markers of dung have increased and diversified over the last decade. This study used a multi-proxy approach focusing on analytical methods to identify the markers of animal dung in prehistoric construction materials. Micromorphology/thin section analysis, and calcium carbonate (CaCO3), carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) analyses were carried out on mudbricks and mortar from the Aceramic Neolithic site of Aşıklı Höyük. Thin section analysis suggested that fecal spherulites are one of the most important proxies of archaeological dung. Nitrogen is the other indicator of animal dung. The results showed that the Aşıklı inhabitants did not abandon mudbricks in their architectural needs for decades and used animal dung as a temper in mudbricks and mortar. Throughout the centuries of occupation at the site, the use of animal dung as a temper changed both diachronically and spatially, particularly with the establishment of settled village life at Aşıklı Höyük. In conclusion, this study suggests that the limits of knowledge of archaeological dung can be expanded using a multi-proxy methodological approach.

DOI :10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913   IUP :10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913    Full Text (PDF)

Arkeolojik Hayvan Dışkısı Çalışmalarına Çok-Göstergeli Yaklaşım: Orta Anadolu, Akeramik Neolitik Dönem Yerleşmesi Aşıklı Höyük’ten Yeni Bulgular

Melis UzdurumGüneş Duru

Hayvan dışkısı hem çevresel koşullar hem de insan topluluklarının yaşamına ve geçmişte insan-hayvan etkileşimine dair bilgi sağlayan disiplinlerarası çalışmaların ilgi odağındaki araştırma alanlarından biridir. Arkeolojik yerleşmelerdeki hayvan dışkısı kalıntılarının makroskopik olarak tespit edilmesi çoğu zaman mümkün değildir. Bu nedenle özellikle son yıllarda dışkının mikro göstergelerine ulaşabilmenin yollarına odaklanan araştırmalar artmış, çeşitlenmiştir. Çalışmamız çok-göstergeli yaklaşım (multi-proxy approach) çerçevesinde yapı malzemelerindeki hayvan dışkısının izlerini belirlemenin analitik yollarına odaklanmaktadır. Bu bağlamda Akeramik Neolitik Dönem yerleşmesi Aşıklı Höyük’teki kerpiç ve harçlar üzerinde ince kesit analizleri, kalsiyum karbonat (CaCO3), karbon (C) ve azot (N) analizleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Mikromorfoloji/ince kesit analizleri sözü edilen göstergelerden birinin dışkı sferülitleri olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Hayvan dışkısının göstergelerinden bir diğerinin ise azot olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Böylelikle ulaştığımız sonuçlardan biri iskan boyunca kerpiç yapı geleneğini hiç terk etmemiş bir topluluk olan Aşıklılıların kerpiç ve harçlarında katkı malzemesi olarak hayvan dışkısı kullandığı; diğeri bu kullanımın yerleşik köy yaşamının kurulduğu süreçte hem zamansal değişime, hem de mekansal çeşitliliğe sahne olduğudur. Buradan çıkarımla çalışmamız arkeolojik hayvan dışkısına dair bilgimizin sınırlarını çokgöstergeli yaklaşım ve yöntemlerle genişletebileceğimizi ortaya koymaktadır.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


People living in various geographies of the world, especially in rural areas, use animal dung for manuring, fuel, and lighting. Dung is known to have a tempering and binding effect in construction materials such as mudbrick and is still a preferred material in building construction. Archaeological studies and analyses on dung have the potential to yield data on past livestock practices including foddering, and penning, as well as its use as fuel. The study of archaeological dung, thus, provides insights into past cooking activities and food production, production technologies of construction materials and space use, animal movements, and the management and domestication of animals. From a methodological point of view, macro-archaeological analyses often prove to be insufficient to identify dung remains, thus requiring the application of micro-scale analyses to identify dung markers and remains in soils and sediments. In recent years, new microarchaeological methods have been developed in this research area and high-resolution analyses are applied.

In this study, the use of animal dung as a temper in the production of construction materials at Aşıklı Höyük (8350-7300 cal BCE, Volcanic Cappadocia) is studied through microarchaeological methodologies, including thin section analyses and calcium carbonate (CaCO3), carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) analyses. This study aims to identify animal dung in mudbricks and mortars at the site using a combination of observable analyses (micromorphology/thin section analysis) and quantitative analyses (calcium carbonate, carbon, and nitrogen) and to identify the proxies of archaeological dung according to the analytical results obtained. Thus, we aim to contribute to current studies on prehistoric dung and to the development of new methods and approaches in determining markers of archaeological dung in archaeological contexts.

Observable and quantitative analyses reveal certain markers to identify dung in mudbricks and mortars at Aşıklı Höyük. These proxies are fecal spherulites and chemical elements. Spherulites are the direct evidence of dung and therefore constitute the first micro-data group of this study. Fecal spherulites identified under the microscope with thin section analysis and their micro-contextual distribution suggest the extensive use of dung as temper in mortars. We have also observed some diachronic changes in dung use. The partial increase of dung temper in mortars in early-8th millennium BCE contexts at the site corresponds with the expansion of penning areas within the settlement. In contrast, there is a distinct lack of fecal spherulites in mudbricks and mortars during the mid-8th millennium BCE, when the on-site penning areas disappeared, and the settlement was divided into two main functional areas (the dwelling area and the special purpose buildings area).

The decrease in the percentage of organic carbon, carbon, nitrogen, and calcium carbonate in mudbricks and mortars during the mid-8th millennium BCE is coherent with the thin section results. On the other hand, the fact that the percentage of organic carbon and nitrogen in mudbricks is relatively higher in the special purpose buildings area (SPBA), and also the presence of fecal spherulites in one of the thin section samples from this area indicates that dung may have been used as temper in this part of the settlement. However, due to the limited number of samples and the lack of a statistically significant difference in the percentages of organic carbon and nitrogen between the dwelling area and the SPBA, this hypothesis should be further tested with thin section analysis. It is important to increase the number of micromorphology samples from the SPBA to better understand the settlement strategies and architectural choices of the community.

The main pitfall we encountered in thin section analysis was related to the limitations in the number and size of the samples. The data obtained from thin section analysis was cross-checked with quantitative micro-analyses. Nitrogen element analysis confirms the thin section results. Thus, the identification of dung in the thin sections from mudbricks and mortars that we were not able to sample extensively was further supplemented with elemental analyses in a diachronic and spatial scale. This approach provides certain advantages, especially considering the lack of an archaeological thin section laboratory in Turkey, and the financial costs and bureaucratic processes of transferring the samples to laboratories abroad. On the other hand, it should not be overlooked that archaeological micromorphology is one of the most effective methods to identify fecal spherulites and is complementary to elemental analysis. In this sense, the importance of archaeological dung studies with multiproxy approaches that bring together a wide variety of micro-scale analyses within the same research framework comes to the fore.  


PDF View

References

  • Abell, J., Quade, J., Duru, G., Mentzer, SM., Stiner, MC., Uzdurum, M., Özbaşaran, M. (2019). Urine salts elucidate Early Neolithic animal management at Aşıklı Höyük, Turkey. Science Advance, 5 (4), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaw0038 google scholar
  • Berna, F. (2017). Geo-ethnoarchaeology study of the traditional Tswana dung floor from the Moffat mission church, Kuruman, north Cape Province, South Africa. Archaeological and Anthropological Science, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-017-0470-0 / google scholar
  • Bogaard, A., Heaton, THE., Poulton, PR., Merbach, I. (2007). The impact of manuring on nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals: Archaeological implications for reconstruction of diet and crop management practices. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, 335-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2006.04.009 google scholar
  • Bohn, HL., McNeal, BL., O’Connor, GA. (2001). Soil Chemistry. Third edition, John Wiley &Sons, INC. google scholar
  • Boivin, N. (2000). Life rhythms and floor sequences: excavating time in rural Rajasthan and Neolithic Catalhoyuk. World Archaeology, 31, 367-388. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438240009696927 google scholar
  • Bourguet, C. (2015). Analyse anthracologique du site neolithique d’Aşıklı Höyük (Turquie): resultats preliminaires. (Master Dissertation). Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7209 Archeozoologie et Archeobotanique, Paris. google scholar
  • Brochier, J.E., Villa, P., Giacomarra, M., Tagliacozzo, A. (1992). Shepherds and sediments: geo-ethnoarchaeology of pastoral sites. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 11, 47-102. https://doi. org/10.1016/0278-4165(92)90010-9 google scholar
  • Buitenhuis, H., Peters, J., Pöllath, N., Stiner, MC., Munro, ND., Sarıtaş, Ö. (2018). The Faunal Remains from Levels 3 and 2 of Aşıklı Höyük: Evidence for Emerging Management Practices. M. Özbaşaran, G. Duru, M. Stiner (Eds.), The Early Settlement at Aşıklı Höyük- Essays in Honor of Ufuk Esin. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları, 281-323. google scholar
  • Canti, MG. (1997). An investigation of microscopic calcareous spherulites from herbivore dung. Journal of Archaeological Science, 24, 219-231. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1996.0105 google scholar
  • Canti, MG. (1998). The micromorphological identification of faecal spherulites from archaeological and modern materials. Journal of Archaeological Science, 25, 435-444. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1997.0210 google scholar
  • Canti, MG. (1999). The production and preservation of faecal spherulites: animals, environment and taphonomy. Journal of Archaeological Science, 26, 251-258. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1998.0322 google scholar
  • Canti, MG., Brochier, JE. (2017). Faecal Spherulites. C. Nicosia, G. Stoops (Eds.), Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology, Wiley, 51-55. google scholar
  • Courty, MA., Goldberg, P., Macphail, RI. (1989). Soils and micromorphology in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Courty, MA., Macphail, RI., Wattez, J. (1991). Soil micromorphological indicators of pastoralism; with special reference to Arene Candide, Finale Ligure, Italy. Rivista di Studi Liguri, LVII, 127-150. google scholar
  • Crowther, J. (2002). The experimental earthwork at Wareham, Dorset after 33 years: retention and leaching of phosphate released in the decomposition of buried bone. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 405-411. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.2002.0728 google scholar
  • Duru, G. (2005). Yakındoğu Neolitiğinde Orta Anadolu Bölgesi Neolitik Dönem Mimarlığının Yeri. (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Duru, G. (2013). Tarihöncesinde İnsan-Mekan, Topluluk-Yerleşme İlişkisi: MÖ 9. Bin Sonu 7. Bin Başı, Aşıklı ve Akarçay Tepe. (Doktora Tezi). İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Eksambekar, SP., Kajale, MD. (2007). Phytolith analysis for understanding formation processes at Neolithic Budhial, district Gulbarga, South India. K. Paddayya, R. Jhaldiyal, GD. Sushama (Eds.), Formation processes and Indian archaeology. Pune: Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute, 267-277. google scholar
  • Esin, U. (1996). On bin yıl Öncesinde Aşıklı: Anadolu’da bir yerleşim modeli (Aşıklı, ten thousand years ago: a habitation model from central Anatolia), Tarihten Günümüze Anadolu’da Konut ve Yerleşme, 31-42. google scholar
  • Esin, U., Harmankaya, S. (2007). Aşıklı Höyük. M. Özdoğan, N. Başgelen (Eds.), Türkiye’de Neolitik Dönem. İstanbul: Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, 255-272. google scholar
  • Evershed, RP., Bethell, PH., Reynolds, PJ., Walsh, NJ. (1997). 5[P]-Stigmastanol and related 5[P]-Stanols as biomarkers of manuring: analysis of modern experimental material and assessment of the archaeological potential. Journal of Archaeological Science, 24, 485-495. google scholar
  • Friesem, DE., Karkanas, P., Tsartsidou, G., Shahack-Gross, R., (2014). Sedimentary processes involved in mud brick degradation in temperate environments: a micromorphological approach in an ethnoarchaeological context in northern Greece. Journal of Archaeological Science, 41, 556-567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jas.2013.09.017 google scholar
  • Fuks, D., Dunseth, ZC. (2021). Dung in the dumps: what we can learn from multi-proxy studies of archaeological dung pellets. Vegetation History andArchaeobotany, 30, 137-153. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s00334-020-00806-x google scholar
  • Goodman-Elgar, M. (2008). The devolution of mudbrick: ethnoarchaeology of abandoned earthen dwellings in the Bolivian Andes. Journal of Archaeological Sciences, 35, 3057-3071. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jas.2008.05.015 google scholar
  • Goren, Y. (1999). On determining use of pastoral cave sites: a critical assessment of spherulites in archaeology. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, 29, 23-128. google scholar
  • Gur-Arieh, S., Madella, M., Lavi, N., Friesem, D.E. (2019). Potentials and limitations for the identification of outdoor dung plasters in humid tropical environment: a geo-ethnoarchaeological case study from South India. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 11, 2683-2698. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-018-0682-y google scholar
  • Gur-Arieh, S., Mintz, E., Boaretto, E., Shahack-Gross, R. (2013). An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Cooking Installations in Rural Uzbekistan: Development of a New Method for Identification of Fuel Sources, Journal of Archaeological Science, 40 (12), 4331-4347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.06.001 google scholar
  • Gur-Arieh S., Shahack-Gross R., Maeir, AM., Lehmann, G., Hitchcock, LA., Boaretto, E. (2014). The taphonomy and preservation of wood and dung ashes found in archaeological cooking installations: case studies from Iron Age Israel. Journal ofArchaeological Science 46, 50-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/jjas.2014.03.011 google scholar
  • Horwitz, LK., Goldberg, P. (1989). A Study of Pleistocene and Holocene hyaena coprolites. Journal of Archaeological Science, 16, 71-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-4403(89)90057-5 google scholar
  • Kacar, B. (2012). Toprak Analizleri. 3. baskı, Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Kalkan, F., Özbal, R. (2018). Multi-element Characterization of Floors at Aşıklı Höyük: Contributing to the Identification of Activities and Activity Areas. M. Özbaşaran, G. Duru, M. Stiner (Eds.), The Early Settlement atAşıklı Höyük- Essays in Honor ofUfuk Esin. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları, 129-145. google scholar
  • Kalkan, F., Özbaşaran, M., Özbal, R. (2020). Tarihöncesi Mekanlarda Gerçekleştirilen Faaliyetlerin Tanımlanmasında Toprak Kimyası Analizinin Rolü: Aşıklı Höyük Örneği. SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 50, 240-254. google scholar
  • Karkanas, P. (2006). Late Neolithic household activities in marginal areas: the micromorphological evidence from the Kouveleiki caves, Peloponnese, Greece. Journal ofArchaeological Science, 33, 1628-1641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2006.02.017 google scholar
  • Kayacan, N., Algül, Ç. (2019). A Knapping Area in an 8th millennium BC Building at Aşıklı Höyük, East-Central Anatolia, L. Astruc, C. McCartney, F. Briois, V. Kassianidou (Eds.), Near Eastern Lithic Technologies on the Move. Interactions and Contexts in Neolithic Traditions, 8th International Conferences on PPN Chipped and Ground Stone Industries of the Near East, November 23rd-27th 2016, Astrom Editions, Nicosia, 227-234. google scholar
  • Lancelotti, C., Madella, M. (2012). The “invisible” product: developing markers for identifying dung in archaeological contexts. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39, 953-963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jas.2011.11.007 google scholar
  • Love, S. (2012). The geoarchaeology of mudbricks in architecture: a methodological study from Çatalhöyük, Turkey. Geoarchaeology, 27, 140-156. https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21401 google scholar
  • Macphail, RI., Cruise, GM., Allen, MJ., Linderholm, J., Reynolds, P. (2004). Archaeological soil and pollen analysis of experimental floor deposits; with special reference to Butser ancient farm, Hampshire, UK. Journal ofArchaeological Science, 31, 175-191. google scholar
  • Mbae, NB. (1990). The ethnoarchaeology of Maasai settlements and refuse disposal patterns in the Lemek area. P. Robertshaw (Ed.), Early pastoralists of south-western Kenya, British Institute in Eastern Africa Memoir. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa, 279-292. google scholar
  • Mentzer, SM. (2018). Micromorphological Analyses of Anthropogenic Materials and Insights into Tell Formation Processes at Aşıklı Höyük, 2008-2012 Seasons. M. Özbaşaran, G. Duru, M. Stiner (Eds.), The Early Settlement atAşıklı Höyük- Essays in Honor ofUfuk Esin. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları, 105-128. google scholar
  • Miller, NF. (1984). The use of dung as fuel: an ethnographic example and an archaeological application. Paleorient, 10, 71-79. google scholar
  • Noei, S. (2017). Tarihöncesi Anadolu’da (MÖ 8500-3500) Yapı Malzemesi Olarak Kerpicin Arkeolojik ve Arkeometrik Değerlendirilmesi. (Doktora tezi). İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Otaegui, A.A., Polo-Diaz, A., Richter, T. (2017). Dung use before animal domestication in southwest Asia: evidence from early Natufian Shubayqa 1 (northeastern Jordan). Abstract from Annual Meeting of the Society of American Archaeologist 2017, Canada: Vancouver. google scholar
  • Özbaşaran, M. (2011). Re-starting at Aşıklı. Anatolia Antiqua, XIX, 27-37. google scholar
  • Özbaşaran, M., Duru, G. (2015). The Early Sedentary Community of Cappadocia: Aşıklı Höyük. D. Beyer, O. Henry, A. Tibet, (Eds.), La Cappadoce Meridionale de la prehistoire a la periode byzantine. Institut Français d’Etudes Anatoliennes Georges-Dumezil, 8-9 Novembre, 2012, İstanbul, 43-51. google scholar
  • Özbaşaran, M., Duru, G., Uzdurum, M. (2018). Architecture of the Early Settlement and Trends through the Cultural Sequence. M. Özbaşaran, G. Duru, M. Stiner (Eds.), The Early Settlement at Aşıklı Höyük-Essays in Honor of Ufuk Esin. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları, 57-103. google scholar
  • Pearson, JA., Buitenhuis, H., Hedges, REM., Martin, L., Russell, N., Twiss, K. (2007). New light on early caprine herding strategies from isotope analysis: a case study from Neolithic Anatolia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, 2170-2179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2007.09.001 google scholar
  • Piperno, DR. (2006). Phytoliths: a Comprehensive Guide for Archaeologist and Paleoecologists. Academic Press: Lanham. google scholar
  • Portillo, M., Albert, RM. (2011). Husbandry practices and livestock dung at the Numidian site of Althiburos (el Medeina, kef governorate, northern Tunisia): the phytolith and spherulite evidence. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38, 3224-3233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.06.027 google scholar
  • Portillo, M., Albert, RM., Henry, DO. (2009). Domestic activities and spatial distribution in Ain Abu Nukhayla (Wadi rum, southern Jordan): the use of phytoliths and spherulites studies. Quaternary International, 193, 174-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2007.06.002 google scholar
  • Portillo, M., Garcia-Suarez, A., Matthews, W. (2020). Livestock faecal indicators for animal management, penning, feddering and dung use in early agricultural built environments in the Konya Plain, Central Anatolia. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 12 (40), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-019-00988-0 google scholar
  • Portillo, M., Kadowaki, S., Nishiaki, Y., Albert, RM. (2014). Early Neolithic household behavior at tell Seker al-Aheimar (upper Khabur, Syria): a comparison to ethnoarchaeological study of phytoliths and dung spherulites. Journal of Archaeological Science, 42, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.10.038 google scholar
  • Quade, J., Stiner, MC., Copeland, A., Clark, AE., Özbaşaran, M. (2018). Summary of Carbon-14 Dating of the Cultural Levels of Aşıklı Project. M. Özbaşaran, G. Duru, M. Stiner (Eds.), The Early Settlement at Aşıklı Höyük- Essays in Honor of Ufuk Esin. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları, 43-56. google scholar
  • Schelvis, J. (1992). The identification of archaeological dung deposits on the basis of remains of predatory mites (Acari; Gamasida). Journal ofArchaeological Sciences, 19, 677-682. google scholar
  • Schumacher, M. (2017). Biomolecular and micromorphological analyses of suspected fecal deposits at Neolithic Aşıklı Höyük, Turkey. (M.Sc. Thesis). University of Tübingen, Tübingen. google scholar
  • Shahack-Gross, R. (2011). Herbivorous livestock dung: formation, taphonomy, methods for identification, and archaeological significance. Journal ofArchaeological Science, 38, 205-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jas.2010.09.019 google scholar
  • Shahack-Gross, R., Albert, RM., Gilboa, A., Nagar-Hilman, O., Sharon, I., Weiner, S. (2005). Geoarchaeology in an urban context: the uses of space in a Phoenician monumental building at Tel Dor (Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science, 32, 1417-1431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2005.04.001 google scholar
  • Shahack-Gross, R., Marshall, F., Ryan, K., Weiner, S. (2004). Reconstruction of spatial organization in abandoned Maasai settlements: implications for site structure in the pastoral Neolithic of East Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31, 1395-1411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2004.03.003 google scholar
  • Shillito, LM. (2017). Multivocality and multiproxy approaches to the use of space: lessons from 25 years of research at Çatalhöyük. World Archaeology, 49 (2), 237-259. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2016.12 71351 google scholar
  • Shillito, LM., Bull, ID., Matthews, W., Almond, MJ., Williams, JM., Evershed, RP. (2011). Biomolecular and micromorphological analysis of suspected faecal deposits at Neolithic Çatalhöyük, Turkey. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38 (8), 1869-1877. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.03.031 google scholar
  • Simpson, IA., Dockrill, SJ., Bull, ID., Evershed, RP. (1998). Early anthropogenic soil formation at Tofts Ness, Sanday, Orkney. Journal of Archaeological Science, 25, 729-746. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.1997.0216 google scholar
  • Simpson, IA., Vesteinsson, O., Adderley, WP., McGovern, TH. (2003). Fuel resource utilisation in landscapes of settlement. Journal of Archaeological Science, 30, 1401-1420. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-4403(03)00035-9 google scholar
  • Spengler, RN III. (2019). Dung burning in the archaeobotanical record of West Asia: where are we now?. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 28, 215-227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-018-0669-8 google scholar
  • Stiner, MC., Bailey, KS., Munro, ND., Christidou, R. (2018). Spatial and Zooarchaeological Evidence of Human-Animal Interactions in the Early PPN Settlement at Aşıklı Höyük. M. Özbaşaran, G. Duru, M. Stiner (Eds.), The Early Settlement at Aşıklı Höyük- Essays in Honor of Ufuk Esin. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları, 219-257. google scholar
  • Stiner, MC., Buitenhuis, H., Duru, G., Kuhn, SL., Mentzer, SM., Munro, ND., Pöllath, N., Quade, J., Tsartsidou, G., Özbaşaran, M. (2014). A forager-herder trade-off, from broad-spectrum hunting to sheep management at Aşıklı Höyük, Turkey. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 111, 8404-8409. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1322723111 google scholar
  • Stoops, G. (2003). Guidelines for Analysis and Description ofSoil and Regolith Thin Sections. Soil Science Society of America. google scholar
  • Tsartsidou, G. (2018). The Microscopic Record of Aşıklı Höyük: Phytolith Analysis of Material from the 2012-2016 Field Seasons. M. Özbaşaran, G. Duru, M. Stiner (Eds.), The Early Settlement at Aşıklı Höyük- Essays in Honor of Ufuk Esin. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları, 147-189. google scholar
  • Uzdurum, M. (2018). Live together around fire: Hearths and the use of space at the onset of sedentism. Aşıklı Höyük (Turkey), a case study. C. Douche, F. Pichon (Eds.), From the Caucasus to the Arabian Peninsula: Domestic Spaces in the Neolithic, Proceedings of the International Conference. Actes Du Colloque International, Routes de l’Orient, 11-49. google scholar
  • Uzdurum, M. (2019). MÖ 9. - 8. Bin Yıl Kerpiç Mimarisine Mikroarkeolojik Bir Yaklaşım: Aşıklı Höyük’te Kerpiç ve Harç Tarifleri. (Doktora Tezi). İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Van Geel, B. (2001). Non-pollen palynomorphs. J. Smol, J. Birks J, W. Last (Eds.), Tracking environmental changes using lake sediments, 3. Terrestrial, algal and siliceous indicators. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press, 99-119. google scholar
  • Viklund, K., Linderholm, J., Macphail, RI. (2013). Integrated palaeoenvironmental study: micro- and macrofossil analysis and geoarchaeology (soil chemistry, magnetic susceptibility and micromorphology). LE. Gerpe (Ed.), E18-prosjektet Gulli-Langâker. Oppsummering og arkeometriske analyser, Volume Bind 3: Bergen, Fagbokforlaget, 25-83. google scholar
  • Wayne DW. (1990). AppliedNonparametric Statistics, Boston: PWS-Kent, 226-234. google scholar
  • Weiner, S. (2010). Microarchaeology. Beyond the Visible Archaeological Record. Cambridge University Press: New York. google scholar
  • Zapata Pena, L., Pena-Cocarro, L., Ibanez Estevez, J.J., Gonzalez Urquijo, J.E. (2003). Ethnoarchaeology in the Moroccan Jebala (Western Rif): wood and dung as fuel. K. Neumann, A. Butler, S. Kahlheber (Eds.), Food, Fuel, and Fields. Progressin African Archaeobotany. Heinrich Bart Institut, 163-175. google scholar
  • Zimmermann, MI., Pöllath, N., Özbaşaran, M., Peters, J. (2018). Joint health in free-ranging and confined small bovids - Implications for early stage caprine management. Journal of Archaeological Science, 92, 13-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.02.004 google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Uzdurum, M., & Duru, G. (2021). Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia. Anatolian Research, 0(24), 33-66. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913


AMA

Uzdurum M, Duru G. Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia. Anatolian Research. 2021;0(24):33-66. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913


ABNT

Uzdurum, M.; Duru, G. Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia. Anatolian Research, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 24, p. 33-66, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Uzdurum, Melis, and Güneş Duru. 2021. “Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia.” Anatolian Research 0, no. 24: 33-66. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913


Chicago: Humanities Style

Uzdurum, Melis, and Güneş Duru. Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia.” Anatolian Research 0, no. 24 (Dec. 2021): 33-66. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913


Harvard: Australian Style

Uzdurum, M & Duru, G 2021, 'Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia', Anatolian Research, vol. 0, no. 24, pp. 33-66, viewed 7 Dec. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Uzdurum, M. and Duru, G. (2021) ‘Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia’, Anatolian Research, 0(24), pp. 33-66. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913 (7 Dec. 2021).


MLA

Uzdurum, Melis, and Güneş Duru. Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia.” Anatolian Research, vol. 0, no. 24, 2021, pp. 33-66. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913


Vancouver

Uzdurum M, Duru G. Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia. Anatolian Research [Internet]. 7 Dec. 2021 [cited 7 Dec. 2021];0(24):33-66. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913 doi: 10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913


ISNAD

Uzdurum, Melis - Duru, Güneş. Multi-Proxy Approach to Archaeological Dung Research: New Evidence from Aceramic Neolithic Site of Aşıklı Höyük, Central Anatolia”. Anatolian Research 0/24 (Dec. 2021): 33-66. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.914913



TIMELINE


Submitted12.04.2021
Accepted12.04.2021
Published Online16.09.2021

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.