Research Article


DOI :10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202   IUP :10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202    Full Text (PDF)

Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage

Neyir Kolankaya BostancıMustafa Erkan Fidan

This paper details the preliminary results of the chipped stone artifacts from the Bahçelievler settlement, uncovered during the 2019 and 2020 excavation seasons, which were directed by the Bilecik Archaeology Museum. The first evaluations of the lithic assemblage from Bahçelievler, one of the earliest sites in Northwest Anatolia, which was settled during the 7th millennium BC, show that local flint was used in the settlement to a greater extent than obsidian that was imported from Central Anatolia. At Bahçelievler, where the knapping was mostly carried out in courtyards, the lithic chipped stone assemblage is based on the production of blades and bladelets. Among the main tool types recovered from the buildings, sickle blades and bladelets are common, which indicates that agriculture had an important place in the life and economy of the settlement. This preliminary study of the Bahçelievler Neolithic chipped stone assemblage reveals the presence of bulletshaped cores and transverse arrowheads and the use of a pressure technique, suggesting that the communities living in Northwest Anatolia, especially Menteşe and Barcın Höyük, used similar technologies in the 7th Millennium BC.

DOI :10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202   IUP :10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202    Full Text (PDF)

Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolitik Çağ Yontmataş Topluluğuna Ait İlk Değerlendirmeler

Neyir Kolankaya BostancıMustafa Erkan Fidan

Bu makale, Bilecik Arkeoloji Müzesi başkanlığında sürdürülen Bahçelievler yerleşmesinde 2019 ve 2020 yılı kazı sezonları sırasında ele geçen yontmataş buluntulara dair ilk gözlemleri içermektedir. Kuzeybatı Anadolu’nun en eski yerleşmelerinden biri olan ve MÖ 7. binyılda yerleşim görmüş olan Bahçelievler yerleşmesindeki yontmataş buluntu grubu üzerine yapılan ilk değerlendirmeler, yerleşmede büyük oranda yerel çakmaktaşının kullanıldığını, bunun yanı sıra Orta Anadolu’dan ithal edilen obsidyenlerin de var olduğu bir yontmataş topluluğunu işaret etmektedir. Yongalama işleminin büyük oranda avlularda gerçekleşmiş olduğu Bahçelievler’de yontmataş topluluğu, dilgi ve dilgicik üretimine dayanmaktadır. Daha çok yapıların içinden ele geçen alet tipleri arasında yerleşimde tarımın önemli bir yer tuttuğunu gösteren orak dilgi ve dilgiciklerinin yoğunlukta olduğu görülmektedir. Bahçelievler Neolitik Çağ yontmataş topluluğu üzerine yapılan bu ilk çalışma, mermi biçimli çekirdekler ile keski ağızlı ok uçlarının varlığı ve baskı tekniği kullanımını ortaya koymasından dolayı, yerleşimde Kuzeybatı Anadolu’da özellikle de Menteşe ve Barcın Höyük’te yaşayan toplumların MÖ 7. Binyılda benzer teknolojileri kullanıldığını göstermiştir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


As a result of the excavations carried out in 2019 and 2020 at Bahçelievler, a settlement located within the borders of the Bilecik province and dating back to the 7th millennium BC, a total of 435 chipped stone artifacts were found. This paper presents the first results of the techno-typological analysis of the Neolithic chipped stone artifacts, documented across the seven building levels of the settlement. Further, comparisons are made with the chipped stone assemblages excavated from the contemporary sites in the region.

The preliminary studies of the Bahçelievler Neolithic chipped stone artifacts show the use of two types of raw materials, local and imported. It is noteworthy that besides the dominant flint, which makes up 91% of the assemblage, obsidian finds are present at 9%. Although no analysis of the sources has been carried out on obsidian samples, the macroscopic studies suggest that obsidian might be obtained from the Göllüdağ and Nenezidağ deposits in Central Anatolia. According to preliminary observations, the Bahçelievler Neolithic inhabitants seem to have used Nenezidağ obsidian more frequently than Göllüdağ obsidian. However, obsidian origin analyses are necessary to examine this issue in detail.

Knapping of flint, which was obtained from local sources, was carried out in the settlement, especially in courtyards. The scarcity of debris related to obsidian demonstrates that this raw material was mostly brought in as end products.

In the Bahçelievler lithic assemblage, there are bullet-shaped cores, end scrapers, borers, and transverse arrowheads, which are the characteristic artifacts of the Northwestern Anatolian Neolithic chipped stone industry. A flint bullet-shaped core, which comes from the lowest settlement layer of the Bahçelievler, dating 7000–6700 BC, represents one of the oldest bullet-shaped core examples obtained from the dated cultural layer in the region. The presence of bullet-shaped cores and transverse arrowheads at Bahçelievler and the use of a pressure technique reveal that the communities living in Northwest Anatolia had similar technical skills and shared similar techniques in chipped stone production in the 7th millennium BC.

The Bahçelievler Neolithic chipped stone assemblage is generally based on the production of blades and bladelets. Bladelets make up the majority in the blanks group, followed by blades. There are some differences in the use of raw materials; for example, while obsidian was used for the production of bladelets, more bladelets and blades were produced from flint. The most likely reason for this may concern the use of obsidian, being an imported material, more economically.

Sickle elements make up the majority of tools in the lithic assemblage of the site. Bearing in mind that these tools were most likely used in harvesting, their abundance indicates that agriculture played an important role during the Neolithic period at Bahçelievler. In the tool assemblage, sickle elements are followed by end scrapers, arrowheads, borers, notched tools, and a single burin and a knife. Notably, blades were mostly used in the production of these tools. Finally, the Bahçelievler chipped stone tool assemblage is generally included in the northwestern Anatolian Neolithic lithic tool tradition with sickle elements, end scrapers, borers, and transverse arrowheads. This preliminary study of the Bahçelievler Neolithic lithic assemblage reveals that the general character of the settlement has great similarities with Northwest Anatolian sites, especially Menteşe and Barcın Höyük. The predominant use of local raw materials, the use of conical and bullet-shaped cores in blade and bladelet production, and the production of transverse arrowheads, borers, and end scrapers constitute strong evidence supporting this view. The extent f these similarities between the chipped stone assemblages of the contemporary settlements in the same region can be better understood after examining the other material groups.  


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APA

Kolankaya Bostancı, N., & Fidan, M.E. (2021). Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage. Anatolian Research, 0(24), 93-116. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202


AMA

Kolankaya Bostancı N, Fidan M E. Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage. Anatolian Research. 2021;0(24):93-116. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202


ABNT

Kolankaya Bostancı, N.; Fidan, M.E. Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage. Anatolian Research, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 24, p. 93-116, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Kolankaya Bostancı, Neyir, and Mustafa Erkan Fidan. 2021. “Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage.” Anatolian Research 0, no. 24: 93-116. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202


Chicago: Humanities Style

Kolankaya Bostancı, Neyir, and Mustafa Erkan Fidan. Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage.” Anatolian Research 0, no. 24 (Dec. 2021): 93-116. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202


Harvard: Australian Style

Kolankaya Bostancı, N & Fidan, ME 2021, 'Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage', Anatolian Research, vol. 0, no. 24, pp. 93-116, viewed 7 Dec. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Kolankaya Bostancı, N. and Fidan, M.E. (2021) ‘Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage’, Anatolian Research, 0(24), pp. 93-116. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202 (7 Dec. 2021).


MLA

Kolankaya Bostancı, Neyir, and Mustafa Erkan Fidan. Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage.” Anatolian Research, vol. 0, no. 24, 2021, pp. 93-116. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202


Vancouver

Kolankaya Bostancı N, Fidan ME. Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage. Anatolian Research [Internet]. 7 Dec. 2021 [cited 7 Dec. 2021];0(24):93-116. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202 doi: 10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202


ISNAD

Kolankaya Bostancı, Neyir - Fidan, MustafaErkan. Preliminary Evaluations of the Bilecik Bahçelievler Neolithic Chipped Stone Assemblage”. Anatolian Research 0/24 (Dec. 2021): 93-116. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.935202



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Submitted09.05.2021
Accepted06.08.2021
Published Online20.08.2021

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