Research Article


DOI :10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358   IUP :10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358    Full Text (PDF)

A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave

İsmail BaykaraEce Eren KuralAyşen AçıkkolMustafa Kenan Agras

Üçağızlı II Cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the Mediterranean coast of Hatay Province, Turkey, is partly collapsed and, based on uranium series dates, is dated between 75,000 and 42,000 BP. This paper examined faunal remains and lithic assemblages from layer Bu (B-upper), obtained during the 2020 excavation season. In layer Bu, typical faunal remains of the Mediterranean have been identified, and for the first time, ornamentation samples have been found in mollusk remains. Lithic assemblages are characterized by Levallois industry, and flake-based production has been determined. Additionally, unipolar Levallois core, Mousterian, and Levallois points and sidescrapers dominate the lithic assemblages. These features indicate that stone tools from layer Bu belong to the Levantine Middle Paleolithic culture and resemble “Tabun C type” industry. This situation shows human dispersal to the northern Levant during the Upper Pleistocene.

DOI :10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358   IUP :10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358    Full Text (PDF)

Kuzey Levant’tan Bir Orta Paleolitik Dönem Yerleşimi: Üçağızlı II Mağarası Buluntuları

İsmail BaykaraEce Eren KuralAyşen AçıkkolMustafa Kenan Agras

Üçağızlı II Mağarası Hatay İli’nin Akdeniz kıyısında yer alan Orta Paleolitik Dönem’e ait bir yerleşim alanıdır. Mağara, kısmen yıkılmıştır ve uranyum serisi yöntemi ile 75,000 ile 42,000 yıl öncesine tarihlendirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada, Üçağızlı II Mağarası 2020 yılı kazı çalışmalarında Büst tabakasından elde edilen faunal kalıntılar ve yontmataş endüstrisi incelenmiştir. Büst tabakasında Akdeniz’in tipik faunal kalıntıları saptanmış, yumuşakça örneklerinde ise ilk defa süslenme kalıntıları tespit edilmiştir. Yontmataş buluntular ise Levallois endüstrisiyle karakterizedir ve yonga ağırlıklı bir üretim belirlenmiştir. Yontmataş endüstri grubunda tek kutuplu Levallois çekirdekler, Mousterian ve Levallois uçlar ile kenar kazıyıcılar belirgindir. Bu özellikler Büst tabakasından elde edilen yontmataş endüstrisinin Levant Orta Paleolitik kültürü içerisinde yer aldığını ve bu kültürün “Tabun C tip” endüstrisine benzediğini göstermektedir. Bu durum Üst Pleistosen Dönem'de Levant’ın kuzeyine doğru bir yayılımı göstermektedir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Üçağızlı II Cave is located on the Hatay region’s Mediterranean coast, situated at the northernmost Levant coastal plains where they intersect with the Taurus Mountains and the Anatolian plateau. Roughly 500 m from Üçağızlı I Upper Paleolithic Cave, Üçağızlı II Cave is a Middle Paleolithic site discovered by French researcher A. Minzoni-Déroche during surveys of Hatay in the 1980s. During 2005–2007, Prof. Dr. Erksin Güleç conducted a test excavation to determine the stratigraphy; a sequence of Mousterian deposits about 2 m thick was found (Baykara vd., 2015), and in 2020, Assoc. Prof. Dr. İsmail Baykara began systematic excavation. This paper reports results from excavations at Üçağızlı II Cave layer Bu in 2020.

During excavation from 2005 to 2007, most of the archaeological layers were found in the cave’s chamber D, and archaeological deposits were divided into six cultural levels (A-B-BuBl -C-D). All layers contain highly anthropogenic material and preserve features of Middle Paleolithic culture (Baykara vd., 2015). In 2020, new trenches were created according to previously made trenches. During the 2020 excavation season, current soil and a layer of dung mixed with layer Bu were detected in layer A. Lying just below layer A, layer Bu has a soft structure and includes lithic assemblages and faunal remains.

Üçağızlı II Cave was dated to approximately 75,000 (bottom layers)–42,000 (top layers) years ago, according to uranium series dates. Additionally, thermoluminescence dating was applied to samples from the lower part of layer B and the inside of layer C but did not provide any results from these samples (Baykara vd., 2015). Although the cave’s lower and upper layers have been dated, between-layers dates have not yet been determined. Therefore, animal bone samples were collected for carbon 14 dating but could not be applied because of the bones’ absence of collagen.

During 2020 excavations, 294 animal remains were identified in level Bu, where faunal assemblages are dominated by ungulates, the most common being Capreolus capreolus (roe deer) and Dama mesopotamica (fallow deer), followed by Capra aegagrus (wild goat) and Sus scrofa (wild boar). Besides terrestrial animals, the most common marine mollusks in layer Bu are Monodonta and Patella sp., which manifest breakage patterns, burn marks, and use wear. Analytical results on faunal remains from layer Bu indicate that terrestrial animals and mollusks were added to the diet in this period. Moreover, two perforated marine shells, belonging to Columbella rustrica and perhaps related to ornamentation, were found in layer Bu.

Besides faunal remains, 458 lithic artifacts were recovered from layer Bu at Üçağızlı II Cave in 2020, including 203 stone tools, six cores, and 249 debris. All artifacts were made from flint, and two types of raw material sources, identified as primary and secondary, have been found in the cave’s surrounding area. One set of primary sources is located near the town of Yayladağ, about 20 km from the cave. A second group of bedrock flint sources is located near the village of Şenköy, 35 km from the site. Secondary sources of heavily rolled flint pebbles occur on fossil beaches, much closer to the cave. According to analyses on cortex types of artifacts, secondary raw material sources were used more than primary sources in layer Bu at Üçağızlı II Cave. Studies on lithic assemblages from layer Bu indicate that half of the stone tools were whole pieces, but the other half were broken due to human impact. Additionally, lithic analyses demonstrate that lithic assemblages are characterized by the Levallois industry in layer Bu. Besides, flake production, unipolar Levallois cores, sidescrapers, and points (Mousterian and Levallois) dominate in this layer. These features indicate that stone tools from layer Bu at Üçağızlı II Cave are similar to “Tabun C type” Mousterian assemblages.

Turkey has a unique geographic position. Lying between the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Levant, and Eastern Europe, it has an important role in understanding Pleistocene hominids’ migration route and expansion. Üçağızlı II Cave is located at the Levantine coastal zone’s northern limit, and in the following years, therefore, the site’s excavation results will provide important information about Pleistocene human behavior, their technology, and migration routes between Anatolia and the Levant.  


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APA

Baykara, İ., Eren Kural, E., Açıkkol, A., & Agras, M.K. (2021). A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave. Anatolian Research, 0(24), 1-31. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358


AMA

Baykara İ, Eren Kural E, Açıkkol A, Agras M K. A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave. Anatolian Research. 2021;0(24):1-31. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358


ABNT

Baykara, İ.; Eren Kural, E.; Açıkkol, A.; Agras, M.K. A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave. Anatolian Research, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 24, p. 1-31, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Baykara, İsmail, and Ece Eren Kural and Ayşen Açıkkol and Mustafa Kenan Agras. 2021. “A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave.” Anatolian Research 0, no. 24: 1-31. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358


Chicago: Humanities Style

Baykara, İsmail, and Ece Eren Kural and Ayşen Açıkkol and Mustafa Kenan Agras. A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave.” Anatolian Research 0, no. 24 (Dec. 2021): 1-31. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358


Harvard: Australian Style

Baykara, İ & Eren Kural, E & Açıkkol, A & Agras, MK 2021, 'A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave', Anatolian Research, vol. 0, no. 24, pp. 1-31, viewed 7 Dec. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Baykara, İ. and Eren Kural, E. and Açıkkol, A. and Agras, M.K. (2021) ‘A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave’, Anatolian Research, 0(24), pp. 1-31. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358 (7 Dec. 2021).


MLA

Baykara, İsmail, and Ece Eren Kural and Ayşen Açıkkol and Mustafa Kenan Agras. A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave.” Anatolian Research, vol. 0, no. 24, 2021, pp. 1-31. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358


Vancouver

Baykara İ, Eren Kural E, Açıkkol A, Agras MK. A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave. Anatolian Research [Internet]. 7 Dec. 2021 [cited 7 Dec. 2021];0(24):1-31. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358 doi: 10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358


ISNAD

Baykara, İsmail - Eren Kural, Ece - Açıkkol, Ayşen - Agras, MustafaKenan. A Middle Paleolithic Settlement from the Northern Levant: The Finds of Üçağızlı II Cave”. Anatolian Research 0/24 (Dec. 2021): 1-31. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2021.24.972358



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Submitted16.07.2021
Accepted10.08.2021
Published Online16.09.2021

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