Copyright Law Practice in TurkeyNevhis Deren Yıldırım
The Turkish Copyright Act is from 1951. This Act distinguishes between several classes of works such as linguistic works, musical works, works of arts and cinematographic works. Under the amendment in 1995 the same Act is regulating the relatedrights: Theprotectionofthe rightsof exploitationandmoralrightsis a sensitive subjectforlegalpractice. Furthermore, the protection of copyrights is related with preliminary injunctions. The provisional legal protection of copyrights can be safeguarded by the new built Courts of appeal in Turkey.
Die urheberrechtliche Praxis in der TürkeiNevhis Deren Yıldırım
Das Gesetz fuer geistige Schoepfungen und Kunstwerke trat im Jahre 1951 in Kraft. Es bestimmt den Schutzgegenstand des Urheberrechts und stellt verschiedene Kategorien,wie wissenschaftliche und literarische Werke,musikalische Werke, Kunstwerke und Filmwerke auf. Seit der Gesetzesaenderung im Jahre 1995 werden auch verwandte Schutzrechte des ausuebenden Kuenstlers,des Herstellers von Tontraegern und des Sendeunternehmens anerkannt. Der Schutz der Verwertungsrechte und der urheberlichen Persoenlichkeitsrechte bildet den Kernpunkt dieses Rechtsbereiches. Der einstweilige Rechtschutz spielt im Urheberrecht eine kritische Rolle. Die Einfuehrung der Berufungsinstanz ist aus diesem Grund zu begruessen, da die Gerichtspraxis in Vergangenheit zur Abweisung der Antraege tendierte.
Türkiye’de Fikri Haklar UygulamasıNevhis Deren Yıldırım
(Türk) Fikir ve Sanat Eserleri Kanunu 1951 tarihlidir. Söz konusu kanun birçok eser kategorisine yer vermektedir; bunlar sırasıyla edebiyat eserleri, müzik eserleri, güzel sanat eserleri ve sinema eserleridir. 1995 değişikliği ile aynı kanun eser ile bağlantılı hakları da koruma altına almıştır. Uygulamada eser üzerindeki mali haklar ile manevi yetkilerin hukuki korunması hassas bir konudur. Bunun yanı sıra telif haklarının korunması ihtiyati tedbirler ile de bağlantılıdır. Fikri hakların geçici korunması yeni kurulan istinaf mahkemeleri ile de garanti altına alınmıştır.
Law No. 5846 on Intellectual and Artistic Works (the Turkish Copyright Act) regulates the author’s rights. According to Art. 8 the owner of a copyright is the creator of an intellectual or artistic work. Creators’ rights, such as exploitation rights and moral rights, are protected by the Law on Intellectual and Artistic Works from 1951. Moral rights are the right of making the work public (Art. 14), the right of determining the indication of the author’s name (Art. 15), the right of integrity (to prevent distortion and other alterations of the work; Art. 16), and the right of the author against possessors and owners of the work (Art. 17). Exploitation rights are the right to adapt (Art. 21), the right of reproduction (Art. 22), the right of distribution, the right of exhibition (Art. 24), and the right of broadcasting (Art. 25). There are several types of works protected by the Copyright Act: 1) linguistic and scientific works, 2) works of art, 3) musical works, and 4) cinematographic works.
Since its amendment in 1995, the same act regulates related rights. Third persons have to be granted sub-licences in whole or in part for utilisation rights. In the case of infringement of a right of exploitation or a moral right, the creator can apply to the Court of Copyrights for legal protection, which was established as a specialised court of civil law in 1995. Authors and related rights holders can request compensation (Art. 70) and make claims for preventing infringement and for restitution, or just bring an action for a declaratory judgment.
Copyright law practice in Turkey is still vibrant. The establishment of a specialised court for copyright law proposals might also be said to contribute to the development of authors’ rights. Court-granted preliminary injunctions are the core of the protection of authors and related rights holders. The amendment of the Civil Procedure Act and the newly established Appeal Court must be welcomed. Copyrights ensure that creators have control over the exploitation of their works. In order to gain an understanding of the origin of copyrights, we have to postulate a theory. Many authors have proposed theories of the origin of copyrights, including the theory of intellectual property, the theory of personality rights, the monistic theory, the theory of publishers’ property, and the principle of creativity. The principle of creativity has become dominant with the Law on Intellectual and Artistic Works (Art. 8). One of the most frequently discussed topics among Turkish copyright lawyers is the definition of creativity as the subject of protection of a work.
The rights of ownership were not known in the early Middle Ages. The human being was accepted as a creation of God, so human creators did not have the right of determining the indication of their own names.The rights of ownership were not known in the early Middle Ages. The human being was accepted as a creation of God, so human creators did not have the right of determining the indication of their own names.