Research Article


DOI :10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004   IUP :10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004    Full Text (PDF)

Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security

Leila BijosRenan De Souza

Private Military Companies (PMCs) are a relatively new actor in worldwide warfare. They are part of a multi-billionaire industry profiting over US$ 100 billion in revenue per year. Present in 50 different countries and boosted by significant world’s events such as the advent of new wars, post-Cold War order, and 11th September attacks, the PMCs became an extension and an outsourced state-capacity of act coercively. These companies have grown in ability, capability, tactical and technical skills enabling them to fight wars in the name of states. Nevertheless, this growth also represents a great risk for security destabilisation, human security, and even small changes in the international order. Although PMCs cannot yet wage wars by themselves, the lack of regulation and accountability under international laws enable them to cause isolated but powerful damage, which can destabilise – even momentarily – the global security system, mainly when those companies are used by statemen to overcome political and public costs in democracies. Also, PMCs can be used by rogue or failed states. Blackwater case, in Iraq, taught the world how human security can be under threat when a profitoriented company incorporates an influential military culture. Researchers and scholars are still assessing the lessons from Iraq and the operation of further coming companies in order to classify the position of PMCs in a future where national armies are reduced.


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APA

Bijos, L., & De Souza, R. (2020). Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, 0(69), 87-118. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004


AMA

Bijos L, De Souza R. Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul. 2020;0(69):87-118. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004


ABNT

Bijos, L.; De Souza, R. Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 69, p. 87-118, 2020.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Bijos, Leila, and Renan De Souza. 2020. “Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security.” Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul 0, no. 69: 87-118. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004


Chicago: Humanities Style

Bijos, Leila, and Renan De Souza. Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security.” Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul 0, no. 69 (May. 2021): 87-118. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004


Harvard: Australian Style

Bijos, L & De Souza, R 2020, 'Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security', Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, vol. 0, no. 69, pp. 87-118, viewed 18 May. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Bijos, L. and De Souza, R. (2020) ‘Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security’, Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, 0(69), pp. 87-118. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004 (18 May. 2021).


MLA

Bijos, Leila, and Renan De Souza. Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security.” Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul, vol. 0, no. 69, 2020, pp. 87-118. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004


Vancouver

Bijos L, De Souza R. Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul [Internet]. 18 May. 2021 [cited 18 May. 2021];0(69):87-118. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004 doi: 10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004


ISNAD

Bijos, Leila - De Souza, Renan. Private Military Companies and the Outsourcing of War: A Spark of Destabilisation to the Global Security”. Annales de la Faculté de Droit d’Istanbul 0/69 (May. 2021): 87-118. https://doi.org/10.26650/annales.2020.69.0004



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Submitted17.04.2020
Accepted29.06.2020

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