Kozan Eskikabasakal/ Peri Settlement and Its Christian ArchitectureHasan Buyruk
The ancient settlement, also known as Perili Castle or Peri Castle, is located in the Döşeme locality within the borders of Eskikabasakal village of Kozan (Sis) district of Adana province. Perili settlement is on a hill with an altitude of approximately 400 m and spreads mostly on the eastern slopes. Approximately 6 km west of Perili settlement, Kozan district is located, 7,5 km northeast of Kozan’s Acarmantaş neighbourhood and Bucak Castle, which is within the borders of this neighbourhood. Today, the settlement has reached a largely destroyed form. There are two churches, three chapels/baptisteries, rock tombs, a water well, a fountain and many ancient buildings’ remains and traces in the settlement. The aim of this study is; Illegal excavations made as a result of neglect, the unprotected works of the mine right next to it and the determination of the places on this historical settlement, which is on the verge of extinction due to natural reasons. For this purpose, the area was scanned, the drawings of the structures that were determined and giving plans were made and their status was determined by photographing them. It was not possible to detect some building remains because the settlement was spread over a large area and a large part of it was destroyed to an extent that it could not be identified. This study covers the churches and chapels in the Peri Settlement. In this study, Christian architectural works will be defined in detail and will be introduced to the world of science with plans and photographs.
Kozan Eskikabasakal/Peri Yerleşimi ve Hristiyan MimarisiHasan Buyruk
Perili Kale veya Peri Kalesi ismiyle de bilinen antik yerleşim, Adana iline bağlı Kozan (Sis) ilçesinin Eskikabasakal köyü sınırları içerisindeki Döşeme mevkiinde yer almaktadır. Perili yerleşimi yaklaşık olarak 400 m rakımlı bir tepe üzerinde ve daha çok da doğu yamaçlarına yayılım göstermektedir. Perili yerleşiminin yaklaşık olarak 6 km batısında Kozan ilçesi, 7,5 km kuzeydoğusunda ise Kozan’ın Acarmantaş köyü ve bu köyün sınırları içerisinde bulunan Bucak Kalesi yer almaktadır. Yerleşim yeri günümüze büyük oranda tahrip olmuş biçimde ulaşmıştır. Yerleşimde iki kilise, üç şapel/vaftizhane, kaya mezarları, bir su kuyusu, bir çeşme ve çok sayıda antik döneme ait yapı kalıntıları ve izleri mevcuttur. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ilgisizlik sonucu yapılan kaçak kazılar, hemen yanı başında yer alan maden ocağının korumasız çalışmaları ve doğal sebeplerden dolayı tamamıyla yok olmaya yüz tutmuş bu tarihî yerleşimin üzerinde yer alan mekânların tespitini yapmaktır. Bunun için alan taranmış, tespit edilen ve plan veren yapıların çizimleri yapılarak fotoğraflamak suretiyle mevcut durumları incelenmiştir. Yerleşim geniş bir alana yayıldığından ve büyük bir kısmının tanımlanamayacak derecede tahrip olmasından dolayı bazı yapı kalıntılarının tespiti mümkün olmamıştır. Bu çalışma Peri Yerleşimi’ndeki kilise ve şapelleri kapsamaktadır. Bu çalışmada Hristiyan mimari eserleri detaylı tanımlanarak plan ve fotoğraflarla bilim dünyasına tanıtılmaya çalışılacaktır.
The ancient settlement, known as “Perili Castle” or “Peri Settlement”, is located on a hill with an altitude of 410 m and on its slopes, in the Döşeme locality, within the borders of Eskikabasakal village, in Kozan (Sis) district of Adana province. The name of the settlement, which is known as Perili Kale or Peri Castle by the residents today, is not known in the Byzantine or Armenian periods. There are two churches, three chapels/baptisteries, rock tombs, a water well, a fountain and many ancient buildings’ remains and traces in the settlement.
The churches numbered 1 and 2 in the settlement are in harmony with the churches of the Cilicia region with their general arrangements and basilical plan schemes and show common features. Particularly, the column fragments seen in the ruins of Church No. 1 located in the center of the settlement appear as important evidence in terms of showing that the separation of the naves was provided by columns. It is known that the separation of the naves is usually provided by columns in the churches of the Cilicia and Isauria regions. The lack of capitals of the columns made of limestone shows itself as a major deficiency in terms of dating and periodization. We believe that these pieces, which are likely to be found in the cleaning work to be done in the churches in the future, will fill a big gap.
Churches, chapels, burial structures, fountains, water wells and other buildings in the settlement were built with cut stones obtained from limestone cliffs peculiar to the region. Churches and other structures in Cilicia, especially in Kozan, Anavarza, Kadirli, Hierapolis Kastabala, Ferhatlı and Akören, which are close to the settlement, were built of large and small cut stones made of the same material. While large hewn stone rows were used in the apses of churches No. 1 and 2, smaller serrated worked stones were used in other places, especially on the inner sides. It is seen that the same smooth block stones were used in the corner connections of the chapel adjacent to the church No. 2. Since the walls of both churches and chapels have largely collapsed, it does not seem possible to get an idea about the formation of the vault.
In both churches, the apse is single and built outward. While the apse in Church No. 1 is half-round inside and outside, in Church No. 2 it is half-round inside and five sections on the outside. In the chapel of Church No. 2, the double apse was cut by a flat wall in the east. It is possible to see the apse arrangement of church No. 1 and the chapel structure next to it in the Anavarza rock church and the Lykia Region Andriake A, B, C, and D churches. The apse form of Church No. 2 can be followed in the Anavarza Apostles Church, Anavarza Southwest Church, Kozan Ferhatlı Church, Kozan Yetçakırı Church, Hierapolis Kastabala Church, and Meryemlik Zenon Church. Again, we see the double chapel plan application located next to Church No. 2 in the Lycian/ Kydna Basilica, Stage 1 Early Period plan. The mouldings seen on the outside of the apse of Churches No. 1 and 2 appear in the apses of these churches with a similar processing style. Similarly, cross motifs are seen in the Kozan Ferhatlı church apse.
It is not known whether there was a gallery floor application in the narthex and interior of both churches. As similarly, the presence of two opposing doors opening to the bema part in both churches is seen in Anavarza Apostles Church and Southwest Church. The dense rubble material accumulated inside, the wooded area prevents us from obtaining information about the flooring of both churches.
The ruins found in the Peri Settlement show that the settlement existed during the Roman Period and spread over a very large area. It is understood from the religious buildings that life here continued in the Byzantine Period. The materials used in churches, the plan forms of churches, the cross and “Christogram” motif decorations, wraps, cornice lines, etc. features, especially neighboring settlements, Anavarza, Ferhatlı, Çarakırı, Akören, Kadirli and Hierapolis Kastabala settles. It is known that the churches of Anavarza were built towards the middle and end of the 6th century, and the churches of the fairy settlement make them built at the end of the 6th century and the early Christian Period.
It is not known exactly when the settlement was abandoned. In order to determine this situation, it is necessary to look at the history of the region, but this will lead us to uncertain possible results. It is known that two earthquakes in the region during the reign of Justin in 525 and in the time of Justinian in 561 caused great damage to the settlements in the region. Again, the plague epidemic, which started in 542-543 years, caused the region to be abandoned and desolate. As a result of the Sassanid attacks that began before and the Arab raids seen since the mid-seventh century, the population of the region almost emptied, the economy collapsed, and the cities were evacuated in a war. Arab domination in Cilicia covers the years 650-965. In the first 50 years of the Abbasid period (750-800), Arabs began to settle in Cilicia. During this period, it could be a potential scenario that the settlement was left deserted. When the Byzantines recaptured the region in 965, they began to fill the region, which was completely depopulated, with people of all races. Taking advantage of this situation, Armenians began to settle in the region. In 1375, the Mamluks put an end to the existence of Armenians, who settled in the region and established administration.
It is thought that the settlement, which was thought to have been abandoned during the Arab invasion period, and the churches there, may have been revived by the Armenians, who settled here as a result of Byzantine policies, even if not due to earthquakes. Because the settlement is very close to Kozan and considering that Kozan was the capital of the Little Armenian Kingdom, the possibility of keeping this place empty decreases. As a result, it is highly probable that these churches and chapels, which are thought to have been built in the Early Byzantine Period, were used by Armenians who settled in the region after being idle for a while. It would be more correct to discuss what kind of changes the churches and chapels might have undergone by the Armenians due to all the above-mentioned reasons. Scientific excavation and cleaning work to be carried out in the settlement in the future will enable us to reach more reliable information.