A Research on Mosque and Neighborhood in Rhodes City in the Ottoman PeriodFurkan Evliyaoğlu
Having a history of about 3000 years, Rhodes was taken from the Knights of Saint-Jean in 1522 and came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. During this period, after the Ottoman Empire besieged the island, it primarily repaired the city walls and settled in a walled city. Later, the Ottoman Empire re-functionalized many buildings belonging to the Byzantine and Knights period. Churches are at the top of these structures. During the Ottoman period, these buildings were converted into mosques, masjids, or schools. In addition, many new buildings were built. Again, mosques and masjids are at the top of this building group. Within the scope of this research, first, the architectural features of all the masjids and mosques in the Rhodes city wall region during the Ottoman period were examined, then the plans and sections of these structures were compiled and catalogued. In addition, the locations of all these buildings are shown on the Rhodes map. In the second section of the study, the neighborhood names of the city of Rhodes were obtained from the census data of 1831, and these neighborhood names and religious structures were matched. Thus, a new map showing the neighborhood locations and possible boundaries of the city was produced and an interpretation was made on the appearance of Rhodes during the Ottoman period. In this direction, the study aims to contribute to the literature of architectural history, both as a catalogue study in which all mosques and masjids on the island of Rhodes during the Ottoman period are compiled and as research that examines the relationship between mosques and neighborhoods in Ottoman cities.
Osmanlı Döneminde Rodos Kentindeki Camiler ve Mahalleler Üzerine Bir İncelemeFurkan Evliyaoğlu
Yaklaşık 3000 yıllık kadim bir geçmişe sahip olan Rodos, 1522 yılında Saint Jean Şövalyeleri’nden alınarak Osmanlı Devleti egemenliği altına girmiştir. Bu dönemde Osmanlı Devleti adayı kuşattıktan sonra öncelikli olarak kent surlarını onarmış ve sur içi bölgesine yerleşmiştir. Ayrıca sur içi bölgesinde yer alan Bizans ve Şövalyeler dönemine ait birçok yapı yeniden işlevlendirilmiştir. Bu yapıların başında kiliseler gelmektedir. Osmanlı döneminde bu kiliseler, camiye, mescide ya da mektebe dönüştürülmüştür. Bunun yanı sıra sur içi bölgesine birçok yeni yapı inşa edilmiştir. Yine bu yapı grubunun başında camiler ve mescitler gelmektedir. Bu çalışma kapsamında öncelikle, Osmanlı döneminde Rodos sur içi bölgesinde yer alan tüm mescitlerin ve camilerin mimari özellikleri incelenmiş, daha sonra bu yapıların plan ve kesitleri derlenerek katalog hâline getirilmiştir. Ayrıca bu yapıların hepsinin konumları mevcut Rodos haritası üzerinde gösterilmiştir. Çalışmanın ikinci aşamasında 1831 yılına ait nüfus sayımı verilerinden Rodos kentine ait mahalle isimleri elde edilmiş, bu mahalle isimleri ile dinî yapılar eşleştirilmiştir. Böylece kente ait mahalle konumlarını ve olası sınırlarını gösteren yeni bir harita üretilerek Osmanlı döneminde Rodos’un görünümü üzerine yorum yapılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda çalışma hem Osmanlı döneminde Rodos adasında bulunan tüm cami ve mescit yapılarının derlendiği katalog çalışması olarak hem de Osmanlı kentlerinde cami ve mahalle ilişkisini inceleyen bir araştırma olarak mimarlık tarihi literatürüne katkı sunmayı amaçlamaktadır.
The archipelago in the southeast of the Aegean Sea is known as the Dodecanese Islands. This name comes from the twelve systems of the islands in the Ottoman Period. Rhodes, the largest of these archipelagoes, has a history of about 3000 years.
Having four major periods as Classical Antiquity, Byzantine Empire, Saint-Jean Knights, and Ottoman Empire, Rhodes has strategically significant potential. For this reason, Rhodes was frequently attacked by Arabs in the 7th and 9th centuries. Again, in the 14th century, Rhodes became an important target for the Genoese, Venetians, and Byzantines. On the other hand, after the Ottoman Empire conquered Istanbul, they acted many times to seize the island, however, could not win through. The last move towards the island was made in 1522 during the reign of Suleyman the magnificent. Rhodes, which joined the Ottoman lands because of this excursion, became a significant stopping point for the Ottoman navy that wanted to reach Egypt from Istanbul. Again, the island’s proximity to Anatolia is an important criterion for the Ottoman Empire.
After conquering the island, Suleyman the magnificent ordered the city walls to be repaired first. Later, he issued edicts to start several construction activities in the region of the island known as the Frank Fortress. Furthermore, many churches belonging to the Knights of Saint-Jean located in the walled city region were converted into mosques. The first of these structures is known as the San Giovanni Church. After the conquest of the island, this building was transformed into a mosque and named Sencuvan Mosque. After the island was conquered, the first Friday prayer was performed in this mosque. In addition to this structure, the Santa Maria del Castello Church has also been converted into the Kanturi Mosque. Likewise, Demirli Mosque, Dolaplı Masjid, and Hurmalı Medrese Masjid are also among the structures that have been converted into a mosque or masjid.
In addition to the conversion of churches from the Byzantine and Knights period into mosques, masjids, or schools, many new structures were built in the walled city region. Foremost among these structures are mosques and masjids. Two new mosques were first built on the island with the edict of Suleyman the Magnificent. Together with these mosques known as Süleymaniye Mosque and İbrahim Pasha, Recep Pasha Mosque was built in later periods. Additionally, Sultan Mustafa III Mosque, Şadırvan Mosque, Agha Mosque, and Hamza Bey Mosque were built in the walled city region.
Within the scope of the study, the buildings converted into mosques or masjids and mosques and masjid structures built in the Ottoman Period are catalogued and shown on the map of Rhodes. After this process, the summary registers containing the census data of 1831 belonging to the city of Rhodes are reached. According to these data, Rhodes Island consists of twenty-three Muslim neighborhoods and two Jewish neighborhoods during the Ottoman period. The names of these neighborhoods; According to Örfi Pasha’s name, these neighborhoods are named; Süleymaniye Cami District, İbrahim Paşa Mosque District, Enderun Mosque District, Demirli Cami District, Recep Paşa Cami District, Cami-i Kebir District, Tireli Hamza Bey Mescidi District, Sadri Çelebi Mescidi District, Takyeci Mescidi District, Abdülcelil Bey Mescidi District, Bored Abdi Halife Mescidi District, Piyaleddin Mescidi District, Bab-ı Mesdud Mescidi District, Alemnak Mescidi District, Kadı Mescidi District, Hüdai Mescidi District, Yeniçeli Mescidi District, Memi Şeyh Mescidi District, Çizmeci Ali Ağa Mescidi District, İlkmihrap Mescidi District, Dolaplı Mescidi District, It can be listed as Kavaklı Mescidi District and Hanzade Mescidi District.
These twenty-three neighborhoods in Rhodes, like other Muslim cities, take their names from the worship structure within their borders. Accordingly, the neighborhood names obtained are matched with the mosque and masjid structures and the locations and possible boundaries of the neighborhoods of the city of Rhodes are shown on a map.
According to this map, it can be said that the area called the Frank Fortress is the focal point or reference point of the city of Rhodes. This area, where Sultan Süleyman started the reconstruction activities after capturing the island, includes many important structure groups, particularly the Mosque-i Kebir, Süleymaniye Mosque imaret, and bathhouse, which are among the important mosques of the city.
In addition to this, it is seen that only Muslims reside in the walled city region in Rhodes, while non-Muslims live outside the castle. The two Jewish neighborhoods in the inner part of the fortress were designed concerning the port at the other end of the city, separating from the Muslim neighborhoods. Twenty-three Muslim neighborhoods in the inner part of the fortress were named after the mosque or masjid they were attached to.
Lastly, the city has developed by being positioned around the bazaar on Knight Street. In this regard, the workplaces located on both sides of Knight Street constitute an important axis. This axis is finally completed by an important structure of the city, such as the Süleymaniye Mosque.