Research Article


DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283    Full Text (PDF)

Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017

Güler YılmazNurşen Özkul FındıkOsman Aytekin

Şavşat Castle is located in Artvin Province, Şavşat District, Söğütlü neighbourhood. It is a subject of debate by which civilization the Şavşat Castle was built for the first time. However, life had continued uninterruptedly until mid-19th century. At the castle which has a mysterious history, archeologic excavation and restoration works started in 2009. During the excavations carried out at Şavşat Castle, a number of glazed and unglazed ceramic pieces were brought to light along with architectural remains and various small findings. Most of the ceramic findings consist of unglazed group. In this group, there are pieces of various types of vessels such as bowls, pots, cookers, bread trays, pitchers, jars, jugs, lids and chamber pots. Although a variety is seen in clay groups of the ceramics, there are mostly red clays. In this study, unglazed ceramics consisting of bowls, chamber pot, mugs, trays, lid, jars and jugs that were not found at the Şavşat Castle excavations between 2016-2017 were discussed. While the pieces discussed within the scope of this study are dated back to the 13th15th centuries, a large part of the ceramics were made during the reign of Christian Bagrationi dynasty who had a say in the governance of Şavşat Castle.

DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283    Full Text (PDF)

Şavşat Kalesi 2016-2017 Kazılarında Bulunmuş Olan Orta Çağ Dönemine Ait Sırsız Seramikler

Güler YılmazNurşen Özkul FındıkOsman Aytekin

Şavşat Kalesi; Artvin ili, Şavşat ilçesi, Söğütlü Mahallesi’nde yer almaktadır. Şavşat Kalesi’nin ilk olarak hangi uygarlık döneminde inşa edildiği tartışma konusudur. Ancak 19. yüzyılın ortalarına kadar kale içinde yaşam kesintisiz devam etmiştir. Tarihi gizemli olan bu kalede arkeolojik kazı ve restorasyon çalışmaları 2009 yılında başlamıştır. Şavşat Kalesi’nde yapılan kazılarda mimari kalıntılar ile çeşitli küçük buluntuların yanı sıra çok sayıda sırlı ve sırsız seramik parçalar da gün yüzüne çıkartılmıştır. Seramik buluntuların çoğunluğunu sırsız grup oluşturmaktadır. Bu grupta kâse, çömlek, pişirme kabı, ekmek tepsisi, maşrapa, küp, testi, kapak ve lazımlık gibi değişik türden kaplara ait parçalar yer almaktadır. Seramiklerin hamur gruplarında çeşitlilik görülmekle beraber yoğunluğu kırmızı renkli hamur oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışmada 2016-2017 yıllarına ait Şavşat Kalesi kazısında bulunmuş olan kâse, çömlek, maşrapa, tepsi, kapak, lazımlık, küp ve testiden oluşan sırsız seramikler ele alınmıştır. Bu seramikler 13.-15. yüzyıllara tarihlendirilmekle birlikte örneklerin büyük bölümü Şavşat Kalesi’nin yönetiminde söz sahibi olan Hristiyan Bagratlı sülalesi döneminde üretilmiştir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


A group of unglazed Georgian era ceramic in Şavşat Castle dated back to the 13th-15th centuries are discussed within the scope of this study. In the said period, Şavşat Castle was ruled by the Georgian Bagrationi Dynasty. The aim of the study is to introduce the Şavşat specimens of the lesser-known Georgian ceramic to the scientific world and emphasize the connection between the architectural texture and historical development of the castle in the light of the ceramic findings. 

Excavation works that took approximately ten years in Şavşat Castle were carried out in twenty-six different locations. Ceramics found during the excavation works at the places that were labeled with the numbers 25 and 26 respectively in 2016 and unglazed ceramics found during the restoration works in 2017 were discussed in this study. The places 25 and 26 are adjacent. Those places are close to the northern wall of the castle. Ceramic findings present clues about the daily lifestyles, economic statuses, cultural-artistic characteristics, and even religious beliefs of the people who lived at Şavşat Castle.

Besides dark clays, light coloured clays such as yellow, grey, and cream are seen among the ceramic vessels at the castle. Thin walls draw attention to light coloured clays, while thick walls draw attention to dark coloured clays. Presence of two different clay textures and structures in this area is an indicator of two different ceramic groups as local and imported. While the ones which are coarse, mixed and with dark clay are local, the ones with smooth surface and light-coloured clay differ from the others with their quality workmanship and baking therefore they are imported to the area. As a result of our comparisons and evaluations, the vessels at Şavşat Castle must have been brought from Georgia through the Black Sea coastal trade. Although Şavşat Castle; which looks like a castle that might be considered as secluded in a rural area in the Middle Ages, is located in a closed basin; it is understood that it has road connections with Akhaltsikhe region of Georgia as well as a commercial connection with Batumi which has an important port. Especially because Batumi has direct advanced sociocultural and commercial connection with the region and it has sectarian affinity with the Byzantium, it strengthens the possibility that imported vessels were brought to Şavşat Castle as gifts or commercial goods.

Mostly bowl type ceramic vessels were found in the castle as a whole or in pieces. The Absence of pieces in plate form and finding mostly bowls, especially the ones with semi-spherical bodies, bring up the question whether they might have been used for drinking wine. Having found very few mug and cup pieces during the excavations also supports this thought. Or in connection with their food culture, it might bring up the question whether those deep vessels may have been used for stews. 

Big jars (pitos); in which the wine, produced at the wine production workshop that was found at the castle, is stored, and matured; are again found as whole or almost whole. Apart from wine, grains may have been stored in those jars. Although it is not understood clearly whether the jars were made there or in another centre, discovering clay rolls in the same area and same colour and clay structure similar to other local ceramics constitutes strong evidence that they are made at the castle. As castles are defence structures at which it is required to be prepared for all kinds of attacks/adverse circumstances, it has been found clearly in the excavations that many places are used as storage areas at difficult times (enemy attack, siege, famine, etc.). In the areas which are qualified as cellars at Şavşat Castle, big jars are found buried in the ground, as well as smaller jars in some places in the middle parts of the castle. It is understood that these storage jars are covered with big flat stones or lids in the shape of round ceramic plates.

The specimens discussed within the scope of this study are dated back to the 13th-15th centuries based on the comparisons that were made. In addition, as the Bagrationi Dynasty was at the castle in that period, it strengthens the possibility that they have made and used the said ceramics. The monograms on bowls that are seen in the 12th-14th century architectural examples in Anatolia show that there is interaction among regions and cultures, and also the local, specific unglazed ceramic production and use in Şavşat indicate that the masters in Şavşat followed the art of the surrounding cultures in and outside the period’s Anatolia within the context of ceramic. Furthermore, as the life at the castle continued until the 19th century, some of those vessels have continued to be made and used in the following Turkish era, especially without too much change in their forms (jars, pileki, chamber pot, jug, pot). Using its trade road and its importance in military strategies, Şavşat Castle has become an important cultural centre. Silk Road from Tabriz to the West, to İstanbul and Trabzon and even sometimes the road from Crimea to the East have gone through Şavşat. Adding different sovereign powers to migrations and wars, the inevitability of interactions in the field of culture and arts can be seen clearly at Şavşat Castle. 


PDF View

References

  • Alyadinova, D. Yu, Iryna Teslenko ve V. V. Mayko. “Keramika iz Raskopok Zolnika Osmanskogo Perioda v Portovoy Chasti Sugdei (Po Materialam Issledovaniy 2010 g.).” Arkheologicheskiy Almanakh 33: Drevnyaya i Srednevekovaya Tavrika (2015): 482-511. google scholar
  • Avissar, Miriam ve Edna J. Stern. Pottery Of The Crusader, Ayyubid and Mamluk Periods In Israel. Israel: Jerusalem, 2005. google scholar
  • Aytekin, Osman. “Şavşat (Satlel) Kalesi 2007 Yılı Kazı ve Restorasyon Çalışması.” 30. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı (26-30 Mayıs 2008, Ankara), c. 2 (Ankara: T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları, 2009), 61-70. google scholar
  • Aytekin, Osman. Taşların Hikâyesi 2007-2016 Şavşat Kalesi Kazı Çalışmaları. Ankara: İlksan Matbaacılık, 2018. google scholar
  • Bakhtadze, Nodar. Ceramics In Medieval Georgia. Bakur: Sulakauri Yayın, 2013. google scholar
  • Bittel, Kurt. “Artvin’de Bulunan Tunçtan Mamul Asarı Atika.” Türk Tarih Arkeologya ve Etnografya Dergisi I (1933): 150-156. google scholar
  • Bocharov, Sergey, Andrey Maslovski ve Nikita Ludin. “The Impact of Ceramic Imports on Ceramic Manufacturing in the Cities of the North-Eastern Black Sea Region in the Late XIII-XIV Centuries.” XIth Congress AIECM3 on Medieval and Modern Period Mediterranean Ceramics 2. Ankara: Vekam Yayınevi, 2017, 117-125. google scholar
  • Brosset, Marie Felicite. Gürcistan Tarihi (Eski Çağlardan 1212 Yılına Kadar. Çev. Hrand D. Andreasyon. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 2003. google scholar
  • Çayırdağ, Mehmet. “Kayseri’de Selçuklu ve Beylikler Devri Binalarında Bulunan Taşçı İşaretleri.” Türk Etnografya Dergisi XVII (1982): 79-108. google scholar
  • Doğer, Lale. “Bizans Sırlı Seramiklerinde Monogramlar.” Antika, Dekorasyon ve Sanat Dergisi 36 (1996): 122-124. google scholar
  • Doğer, Lale. “Kuşadası, Kadıkalesi (Anaia) Kazısı 2003 Yılı Bizans Dönemi Seramik Buluntuları.” Sanat Tarihi Dergisi XIV-1 (2005): 105-133. google scholar
  • Edwards, Robert W. “The Fortifications of Artvin: A Second Preliminary Report on The Marchlands of Northeast Turkey.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 40 (1986): 162-182. google scholar
  • Evliya Çelebi. Evliya Çelebi Seyahatnamesi 2. Çev. Zekeriya Kurşun, Seyit Ali Kahraman ve Yücel Dağlı. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 1999. google scholar
  • Gümüş, Nebi. “Osmanlıların Gürcistan’ı Fethi ve İslamlaşma Hareketleri (XVI. Yüzyıl).” Osmanlı I (1999): 326-335. google scholar
  • Gürhan Gök, Sevinç. “Akşehir Taş Medrese Müzesi’ndeki Türk Dönemi Seramikleri (2000 2001 Anıt Meydan’da Yapılan Kurtarma Kazısı Seramikleri).” Doktora Tezi, İzmir Ege Üniversitesi, 2007. google scholar
  • Haldon, John. Bizans Tarihi Atlası. Çev. Ali Özdamar. İstanbul: Kitap Yayınevi, 2007. google scholar
  • Kılıç, Orhan. XVIII. Yüzyılın İlk Yarısında Osmanlı Devleti’nin İdari Teşkilatı, Eyalet ve Sancak Tevcihatı. Elazığ: Ceren Matbaacılık, 1997. google scholar
  • Koleva, Rumyana. “Pottery From A Middle Byzantine Period Settlement Near Zlatna Livada,” XIth Congress AIECM3 on Medieval and Modern Period Mediterranean Ceramics. Ankara: Vekam Yayınevi, 2017, 429-432. google scholar
  • Köroğlu, Kemalettin. 1995 Yılı Artvin-Ardahan İlleri Yüzey Araştırması. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı Milli Kütüphane Basımevi, 1997. google scholar
  • Mamuladze, Shota, Lasha Aslanishvili ve Kakhaber Kamadadze. Gonio-Apsarus. Batumi: Cultural Heritage Preservation Agency of Ajara, 2019. google scholar
  • Mcnicoll, Anthony. Taşkun Kale: Keban Rescue Excavations Eastern Anatolia. Ankara: British Archaelogical Reports, 1983. google scholar
  • Mitchell, Stephen. Aşvan Kale: Keban Rescue Excavations, Eastern Anatolia I. The Helenistic, Roman and Islamic Site. England: Oxford, 1980. google scholar
  • Morgan, H. Charles. Corinth Volume XI The Byzantine Pottery. Athens: The American School of Classical Studies, 1942. google scholar
  • Özkul Fındık, Nurşen ve Zerrin Köşklü. “Gümüşhane/Dölek Köyünde Çömlekçilik.” Güzel Sanatlar Enstitüsü Dergisi 31 (2013): 51-67. google scholar
  • Özkul Fındık, Nurşen. İznik Sırlı Seramikleri Roma Tiyatrosu Kazısı (1980-1995). Ankara: Bilgin Kültür Sanat Yayınları, 2014. google scholar
  • Özkul Fındık, Nurşen. “Kemah Kalesi Seramik Buluntuları.” Erzincan Kemah Kalesi Kazıları. Erzincan: Erzincan Valiliği Kültür Yayınları, 2020, 225-251. google scholar
  • Teslenko, Iryna. “Crimean Local Glazed Pottery of The 15th Century.” Actas Do X Congresso InternacionalA CerâmicaMedieval NoMediterrâneo. Silves -Mertola (2015): 928-933. google scholar
  • Teslenko, Iryna. “Pottery From Castle Funa (Crimea).” Studia In Honorem Professoris Borisi Borisov 2 (Veliko Turnovo: IVIS, 2016), 641-654. google scholar
  • Teslenko, Iryna. “Virobnitstvo Poliv’yanogo Posudu v Krimu za Çasiv Ulug Ulusu.” Arheologiya i Davnya Istoriya Ukrayini 4 (29) (2018): 7-83. google scholar
  • Teslenko, Iryna. Ceramics of Crimea of the 15th century. Kyiv: Institute of Archeology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2021. google scholar
  • Türker Çaylak, Ayşe. “A Byzantine Settlement in Kalabaklı Valley in The Hellespontus.” Höyük 5 (2014), 53-94. google scholar
  • Veronique, François. “Les Ateliers De Ceramique Byzantine De Nicee/Iznik Et Leur Production (X Edebut XIVe Siecle).”Bulletin De Correspondance Hellenique (1997): 411-442. google scholar
  • Waksman, S. Yona ve Irnya Teslenko. “ ‘Novy Svet Ware’, An Exceptional Cargo Of Glazed Wares From A 13th-Century Shipwreek Near Sudak (Crimea, Ukraine): Morphological Typology And Laboratory Investigations.” The International Journal of Nautical Archaelogy 39/2 (2010): 357375. google scholar
  • Wallis, Henry. Byzantine Ceramic Art. London: Bernard Quaritch 11 Grafton Street, 1907. google scholar
  • Yakobson, Anatoly Leopoldavich. Keramika i Keramicheskae Proizvodstuo Serdnevekovoj Tavriki Ceramique Et Production De Ceramique en Crimee au Moyen Age (en Russe). Leningrad: Vestiging, 1979. google scholar
  • Yıldıztekin, Mürvet. “Kubad-Abad Sarayı Kazılarında Ele Geçen Sırsız Seramik Buluntular (19821990).” Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, 2006. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Yılmaz, G., Özkul Fındık, N., & Aytekin, O. (2022). Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017. Art-Sanat, 0(18), 399-431. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283


AMA

Yılmaz G, Özkul Fındık N, Aytekin O. Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017. Art-Sanat. 2022;0(18):399-431. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283


ABNT

Yılmaz, G.; Özkul Fındık, N.; Aytekin, O. Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017. Art-Sanat, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 18, p. 399-431, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Yılmaz, Güler, and Nurşen Özkul Fındık and Osman Aytekin. 2022. “Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 18: 399-431. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283


Chicago: Humanities Style

Yılmaz, Güler, and Nurşen Özkul Fındık and Osman Aytekin. Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 18 (Feb. 2023): 399-431. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283


Harvard: Australian Style

Yılmaz, G & Özkul Fındık, N & Aytekin, O 2022, 'Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017', Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 18, pp. 399-431, viewed 4 Feb. 2023, https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Yılmaz, G. and Özkul Fındık, N. and Aytekin, O. (2022) ‘Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017’, Art-Sanat, 0(18), pp. 399-431. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283 (4 Feb. 2023).


MLA

Yılmaz, Güler, and Nurşen Özkul Fındık and Osman Aytekin. Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017.” Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 18, 2022, pp. 399-431. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283


Vancouver

Yılmaz G, Özkul Fındık N, Aytekin O. Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017. Art-Sanat [Internet]. 4 Feb. 2023 [cited 4 Feb. 2023];0(18):399-431. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283 doi: 10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283


ISNAD

Yılmaz, Güler - Özkul Fındık, Nurşen - Aytekin, Osman. Unglazed Medieval Pottery Found at the Şavşat Castle Excavation in 2016-2017”. Art-Sanat 0/18 (Feb. 2023): 399-431. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.18.1004283



TIMELINE


Submitted04.12.2021
Accepted22.07.2022
Published Online29.07.2022

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.