Coins Found in the Early Byzantine Chapel of ZeytinliadaMehmet Kayhan Murat
Zeytinliada, which is located near the Erdek District of Balıkesir Province, covers an area of approximately 9 decares. It has been documented with archaeological evidence that there are many religious buildings in Zeytinliada, where excavations were carried out between 2006 and 2016, and that the earliest settlement on the island dates back to the 4th century AD.
The data obtained from the archaeological studies carried out on the island, which was the scene of intense settlement in the Early Byzantine Period, indicate that the island was inhabited continuously until the 14th century. A total of 211 coins were found in 3 different structures/areas in Zeytinliada excavations. In this study, the coins unearthed in the octagonal
chapel unearthed during the 2010 excavations in Zeytinliada were examined. Of the 108 coins found in the chapel, 57 were identified and the remaining 51 coins were dated by considering their metrological features. The catalog of the identified coins was created, and the unidentified coins were listed with their measurements. The coins, whose emperor and mint wereidentified, were minted in the name of 7 different emperors in 5 different mints. The earliest dated coins were minted in 498-518 AD, and the latest in 613-614 AD. Coins minted in bronze are in Follis, Half Follis, Decanummium and Pentanummium units. The coins found in the chapel were compared with the other finds in the area and the usage periods of the chapel were determined.
Zeytinliada Erken Bizans Şapeli’nde Bulunan SikkelerMehmet Kayhan Murat
Balıkesir İli Erdek İlçesi’nin yakınında bulunan Zeytinliada yaklaşık 9 dönümlük bir alanı kapsamaktadır. 2006-2016 yılları arasında kazı çalışmaları gerçekleştirilen Zeytinliada üzerinde birçok dinî yapının yer aldığı ve adadaki en erken yerleşimin MS 4. yüzyıla kadar indiği arkeolojik kanıtlarla belgelenmiştir. Erken Bizans Dönemi’nde yoğun bir yerleşime sahne olan
adada gerçekleştirilen arkeolojik çalışmalardan elde edilen veriler, adanın 14. yüzyıla kadar kesintisiz yerleşim gördüğünü işaret etmektedir. Zeytinliada kazılarında 3 farklı yapı/alanda toplam 211 sikke ele geçmiştir. Bu çalışmada Zeytinliada kazıları 2010 yılı çalışmalarında açığa çıkarılan sekizgen planlı şapelde ele geçen sikkeler incelenmiştir. Şapelde bulunan 108
adet sikkeden 57’si tanımlanmış, geri kalan 51 sikke ise metrolojik özellikleri göz önünde bulundurularak tarihlendirilmiştir. Tanımlanan sikkelerin kataloğu oluşturulmuş, tanımlanamayan sikkeler ise ölçüleriyle birlikte liste hâlinde verilmiştir. İmparator ve darphanesi tespit edilen sikkeler 7 farklı imparator adına 5 farklı darphanede basılmıştır. İncelenen sikkelerin en erken tarihlisi MS 498-518, en geç tarihlisi MS 613-614 yıllarında darp edilmiştir. Bronzdan darp edilen sikkeler Follis, Yarım Follis, Decanummium ve Pentanummium birimlerindedir. Şapelde ele geçen sikkeler alandaki seramik buluntularıyla dönem olarak karşılaştırılıp şapelin kullanım dönemleri tespit edilmiştir.
Zeytinliada is located in Erdek District of Balıkesir Province, approximately 250 m off the coast. Zeytinliada, one of the many islands around the Kapıdağı Peninsula, covers an area of approximately 9 decares. In Antiquity, the island was mentioned as Artake and Arteceon. Meksaniota and Kera Panagia are among the names used in the history of the island. The island was named Zeytinliada because of the olive trees on it today.
The first scientific excavations in Zeytinliada started in 2006 and continued uninterruptedly until 2013, and the excavation of the island was partially completed in 2016 with the latest studies. As a result of the excavations, the presence of the Virgin Mary Monastery on the island was determined. In addition, with the excavations, 3 churches, 2 holy springs, chapels, cisterns, baths, harbor, open-air worship area and many structures for daily needs were unearthed in the monastery. As a result of the excavations, finds belonging to the 4th century AD were found as archaeological finds, although the architectural structure did not come to the present day. In addition, archaeological evidence has shown that life on the island continued until the 14th century AD.
The 2010 season of Zeytinliada excavations were carried out in the open-air temple, stepped altar, latrina, Güney Church, chapel, Patriarch’s Bath and magazine (supply warehouse). In addition to the architectural structures, many small finds are among the archaeological artifacts unearthed on the island during the excavations carried out this season. Ceramic pieces, metal artifacts and coins are the most numerous of these artifacts. The floor of the island, which is one of the areas where the 2010 studies were carried out, was obtained by carving the bedrock and the area where the marble slabs were paved was exposed. It was determined that the area showing a complex building complex was an octagonal chapel. Therefore, although we do not have information about the superstructure of the chapel, it is thought that it is covered with a dome-shaped roof due to similar examples and because it is located at the highest point of the island. In addition to architectural and ceramic pieces, 108 coins scatteredm at different levels were found in the chapel.
Of the coins recovered in the chapel, 57 were identified, while 51 could not be identified due to excessive corrosion. The catalog of the identified coins was created and the inventory numbers and measurements of the unidentified coins were listed at the end of the catalogue. While 44 of the identified coins were identified as emperors and mints, the mint of 2 coins and only the emperor of 3 coins were identified. It was seen that 8 coins were dated to the Byzantine Period due to their partially defined types on them. Considering the metrological characteristics of 51 unidentified coins, the coins in the catalog number 58-84 were dated to the Byzantine Period. The coins grams and diameters. Thus, while 52.78 per cent of the coins found in the chapel were identified, 47.22 per cent could not.
All of the coins described were minted during the Early Byzantine Period. The coins identified as emperors belong to 7 different emperors. The earliest coins are dated 498- 518 AD during the Anastasius Period, and the latest is 613-614 AD during the Heraclius Period. The emperor represented with the most coins in the catalog was II. Justinus and there are 14 coins belonging to the emperor. Two different types are seen on the obverse of the coins examined. The first of these types is the emperor and his family members are monogamous belonging to the second emperors. The emperor and the members of the dynasty are depicted holding a cross, a crossed globus, and a crossed scepter, dressed as consuls, wearing helmets, armored, wearing diadems, shields, etc. There are symbols such as the value sign of the coin, the number of the year, the mint symbol and the letter officina, which are among the reverse types of coins.
The coins, all minted in bronze, are in follis, half follis, decanummium and pentanummium units. Follis is the most common unit with 19 coins, while decanummium is the most common unit with 7 coins. The coins, of which the mint was determined from the coins, were minted in 5 different mints of the empire. These mints are in the form of Constantinople, Thessalonica, Nicomedia, Kyzikos and Antioch. While Constantinople is minted with the most coins in the catalog with 30 coins, Thessalonica and Antioch are the mints that minted the least with 3 coins. The coins in the catalog are important in terms of showing the intensity of Byzantine coin circulation. Especially the fact that the coins belonging to the mints, which are quite far from each other, are found together, reveals this density. In addition, when we look at the ancient Mysia Region, where the island is located, and the Troas Region, which is the closest region to Mysia, it is seen that there are close similarities between the coins found in the excavations in the cities of the region. Especially, it is seen that the coins recovered in these regions decreased towards the end of the Early Byzantine Period and were cut in some cities. This situation is also seen in the coins of Zeytinliada.
The coins found in the chapel played an important role in the dating of the building When the finds unearthed in the chapel were examined as a whole, more precise results emerged. The ceramics and coins discovered in the chapel indicate a time frame that aligns closely with the 5th to 7th centuries AD. Thus, the coins are compared with the ceramics, revealing the construction and usage periods of the building From this point of view, it is stated that the chapel was built around the 5th century AD and that it was built in the 5th-7th century AD. It has been determined that it has been used for centuries. It could not be determined whether the structure continued to be used after this date, as there were no findings.