Research Article

DOI :10.26650/ASE20231267923   IUP :10.26650/ASE20231267923    Full Text (PDF)

Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator

Yayan Mardiansyah AssuyutiAhmad Zulfikar WicaksonoDasumiati DasumiatiKhohirul HidayahFirdaus RamadhanAlfan Farhan RijaluddinDinda Rama Haribowo

An assessment of water quality in 8 urban lakes in South Tangerang City was conducted, as their condition was a concern. This research aims to assess water quality based on the condition of chemical-physical variables and phytoplankton composition. This research was conducted from late May to early October 2021 (the dry season until the inter-seasonal period). The Water Quality Index (WQI) ranged from 61.18-79.53 (medium-good). Phytoplankton composition consisted of 65 genera from 11 classes and 6 divisions. Oscillatoria, Euglena and Pediastrum were the dominant genera, meanwhile, Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae were the dominant class. Phytoplankton communities in all lakes were stable except RL and based on Jaccard index the value of inter-lakes show no identical similarities (≠ 1). In (Nygaard) values ranged from 2.50-undefined (slight-high eutrophication), and X (Saprobic indices) values ranged from 0.33-1.80 (very slight pollution-moderate pollution). The best correlations (both values were r = 0.53) in water quality between the variables were DO (ppm) and BOD (ppm) Urban lakes require further improvement in their lake management to be used as sources of drinking water.

PDF View


  • Adhar, S., Barus, T. A., Nababan, E. S. N., & Wahyuningsih, H. (2021). The waters transparency model of Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh, Indonesia. 3rd International Conference on Fisheries, Aquatic, and Environmental Sciences (ICFAES 2021), 869(1), 0-11. google scholar
  • Al-Thahaibawi, B. M. H., Al-Mayaly, I. K. A., & Al-Hiyaly, S. A. K. (2021). Phytoplankton community within Al-Auda marsh in Maysan Province Southern Iraq. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 722(1). google scholar
  • Amano, Y., Sakai, Y., Sekiya, T., Takeya, K., Taki, K., & Machida, M. (2010). Effect of phosphorus fluctuation caused by river water dilution in eutrophic lake on competition between blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa and diatom Cyclotella sp. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22(11), 1666-1673. google scholar
  • APHA. (2017). Standard Method For the Examination for Water and Wastewater (23rd ed.). Washington: American Public Health Association. google scholar
  • Assuyuti, Y. M., Rijaluddin, A. F., & Ramadhan, F. (2019). Water quality index and phytoplankton during Ramadan in Gintung Lake. BIOTROPIC: The Journal of Tropical Biology, 3(2), 105-121. google scholar
  • Bahri, S., Ramadhan, F., & Reihannisa, I. (2015). Water quality of Gintung Lake, South Tangerang City (in Indonesia). Biogenesis: Journal of Scientific Biology, 3(1), 16-22. google scholar
  • Bellinger, E. G., & Sigee, D. C. (2010). Freshwater Algae: Identification and Use as Bioindicators. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. google scholar
  • Bhateria, R., & Jain, D. (2016). Water quality assessment of lake water: a review. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 2(2), 161-173 pp. google scholar
  • Birch, S., & McCaskie, J. (1999). Shallow urban lakes: A challenge for lake management. Hydrobiologia, 395-396, 365-377. google scholar
  • Bordoloi, D., & Baruah, P. P. (2014). Water quality assessment using phytoplankton in a historical pond of Upper Assam. J. Algal Biomass Utln, 5(2), 1-7. google scholar
  • Carteron, A., Jeanmougin, M., Leprieur, F., & Spatharis, S. (2012). Assessing the efficiency of clustering algorithms and goodness-of-fit measures using phytoplankton field data. Ecological Informatics, 9, 64-68. google scholar
  • Chen, X., Wang, Y., Sun, T., Huang, Y., Chen, Y., Zhang, M., & Ye, C. (2021). Effects of sediment dredging on nutrient release and eutrophication in the gate-controlled estuary of Northern Taihu Lake. Journal of Chemistry, 1-13. google scholar
  • Cronberg, G. (1982). Changes in the phytoplankton of Lake Trummen induced by restoration. Hydrobiologia, 86(1-2), 185-193. https://doi. org/10.1007/BF00005809. google scholar
  • da Silva, N., Santos, J. P. de O., de Oliveira, D. L., Silva, J. D. S., da Silva, K. D. P., Dantas, E. W, & Barbosa, L. G. (2018). Spatial and temporal dynamics of functional groups of phytoplankton in a tropical shallow lake. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, 30, e102. google scholar
  • Dash, M. C., & Dash, S. P. (2009). Fundamentals of Ecology (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. google scholar
  • de Souza, M. da C., Crossetti, L. O., & Becker, V. (2018). Effects of temperature increase and nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton functional groups in a brazilian semi-arid reservoir. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, 30, e215. 1-10. google scholar
  • Dhanam, S., Sathya, A., & Elayaraj, B. (2016). Study of physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton diversity of Ousteri lake in Puducherry. World Scientific News, 54, 153-164. google scholar
  • Dresscher, T. G. N., & Mark, H. van Der. (1976). A simplified method for the biological assessment of the quality of fresh and slightly brackish water. Hydrobiologia, 48(3), 199-201. google scholar
  • Dunca, A. M. (2018). Water pollution and water quality assessment of major transboundary rivers from Banat (Romania). Journal of Chemistry, 1-8. google scholar
  • EPA. (1983). Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes. Ohio: United States Environmental Protection Agency. google scholar
  • Fauzi, F. (2016). Potential tourism analysis of Ciledug Lake and Gintung Lake in South Tangerang City (in Indonesia). Jurnal Pro-Life, 3(2), 8396. google scholar
  • Gao, H., Zhang, S., Zhao, R., & Zhu, L. (2018). Plankton community structure analysis and water quality bioassessment in Jiulong Lake. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 199(2). google scholar
  • Government Regulation of Republic Indonesia Number 22 of 2021. (2021). on The Implementation of Environmental Protection and Management (in Indonesia). Retrieved in 2021, November 25, from Tahun_2021.pdf. google scholar
  • Guiry, M. D., & Guiry, G. M. (2021). Algaebase. Worldwide Electronic Publication, National University of Ireland. Retrieved in 2021, November 12, from google scholar
  • Howard, A. (1994). Problem cyanobacterial blooms: explanation and simulation modelling. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 19(2), 213-224. google scholar
  • Jafari, N., & Gunale, V. (2006). Hydrobiological study of algae of an urban freshwater river. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 10(2). google scholar
  • Jindal, R., Thakur, R. K., Singh, U. B., & Ahluwalia, A. S. (2014). Phytoplankton dynamics and species diversity in a shallow eutrophic, natural mid-altitude lake in Himachal Pradesh ( India ): role of physicochemical factors. Chemistry and Ecology, 30(4), 37-41. google scholar
  • Kagami, M., Yoshida, T., Gurung, T. B., & Urabe, J. (2002). Direct and indirect effects of zooplankton on algal composition in in situ grazing experiments. Oecologia, 133(3), 356-363. google scholar
  • Kalaji, H. M., Sytar, O., Brestic, M., Samborska, I. A., Cetner, M. D., & Carpentier, C. (2016). Risk assessment of urban lake water quality based on in-situ cyanobacterial and total chlorophyll-a monitoring. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 25(2), 655-661. google scholar
  • Kannel, P. R., Lee, S., Lee, Y. S., Kanel, S. R., & Khan, S. P. (2007). Application of water quality indices and dissolved oxygen as indicators for river water classification and urban impact assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 132(1-3), 93-110. google scholar
  • Karacaoğlu, D., Dere, Ş., & Dalkiran, N. (2004). A taxonomic study on the phytoplankton of Lake Uluabat (Bursa). Turkish Journal of Botany, 28(5), 473-485 pp. google scholar
  • Katsiapi, M., Moustaka-Gouni, M., Vardaka, E., & Kormas, K. A. (2013). Different phytoplankton descriptors show asynchronous changes in a shallow urban lake (L. Kastoria, Greece) after sewage diversion. Fundamental and Applied Limnology, 182(3), 219-230. google scholar
  • Kshirsagar, A. D. (2013). Use of algae as a bioindicator to determine water quality of River Mula from Pune City, Maharashtra (India). Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, 3(1), 79-85. google scholar
  • Kumar, P., & Mina, U. (2021). Fundamentals of Ecology and Environment (3rd ed). New Delhi: Pathfinder Publication. google scholar
  • Li, Y., Yu, Z., Ji, S., Meng, J., Kong, Q., Wang, R., & Liu, J. (2021). Diverse drivers of phytoplankton dynamics in different phyla across the annual cycle in a freshwater lake. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 36(1), 13-29. google scholar
  • Liang, H., Zhou, W., Zhang, Y., Qiao, Q., & Zhang, X. (2015). Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study. Scientific Reports, 5, 1-17. google scholar
  • Maznah, W. O. W., & Makhlough, A. (2014). Water quality of tropical reservoir based on spatio-temporal variation in phytoplankton composition and physico-chemical analysis. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12(7), 2221-2232. google scholar
  • Mironga, J. M., Mathooko, J. M., & Onyewere, S. M. (2012). Effect of water hyacinth infestation on the physicochemical characteristics of AWBA reservoir, Ibadan, South-West, Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(7), 103-113. google scholar
  • Mohamed, R. M., Al-Gheethi, A. A., Aznin, S. S., Hasila, A. H., Wurochekke, A. A., & Kassim, A. H. (2017). Removal of nutrients and organic pollutants from household greywater by phycoremediation for safe disposal. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 8(3), 259-272. google scholar
  • Naqqiuddin, M. A., Omar, M. A., Kader, A., Norsalwani, M., Nor, N., Osman, S., Shoham, S., Zulkifly, O., & Ismail, A. (2017). Comparison of phytoplankton diversity and succession between two small man-made lakes in Serdang, Selangor. Tropical Ecology, 58(3), 485-496. google scholar
  • Niyoyitungiye, L., Giri, A., & Mishra, B. P. (2020). Quantitative and qualitative analysis of phytoplankton population in relation to environmental factors at the targeted sampling stations on the Burundian littoral of Lake Tanganyika. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 8 (1, Part B), 110-121. google scholar
  • Norris, B., & Laws, E. A. (2017). Nutrients and phytoplankton in a shallow, hypereutrophic urban lake: Prospects for restoration. Water, 9(6). google scholar
  • Nurfadillah, N., Desrita, D., Dewiyanti, I., Rahayu, R. S., Maulidawati, S., Sari, S., Surikawati, S., & Karina, I. (2022). Community structure of plankton in Anouk Laot Lake Sabang Pulau Weh. E3S Web of Conferences, 339(03008), 1-5. google scholar
  • Nygaard, G. (1949). Hydrobiological studies on some danish ponds and lakes part II : the quotient hypothesis and some new or little known organisms. BIOLOGISKE SKRIFTER, 7(1), 293 p. google scholar
  • Padisak, J., Crossetti, L. O., & Naselli-Flores, L. (2009). Use and misuse in the application of the phytoplankton functional classification: A critical review with updates. Hydrobiologia, 621(1), 1-19. google scholar
  • Padmavathi, P., & Prasad, M. K. D. (2007). Studies on algal bloom disasters in carp culture ponds. Braz J. Morphol Sci, 24(2), 32-43. google scholar
  • Patil, S. G., Chonde, S. G., Jadhav, A., & Raut, P. D. (2012). Impact of physico-chemical characteristics of Shivaji University lakes on phytoplankton communities, Kolhapur, India. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 1(2), 56-60. google scholar
  • Pesce, S. F., & Wunderlin, D. A. (2000). Use of water quality indices to verify the Cordoba City (Argentina) on Suquıa River. Water Research, 34(11), 2915-2926. google scholar
  • Piranti, A. S., Wibowo, D. N., & Rahayu, D. R. U. S. (2021a). Nutrient determinant factor of causing algal bloom in tropical lake (case study in Telaga Menjer Wonosobo Indonesia). Journal of Ecological Engineering, 22(5), 156-165. google scholar
  • Piranti, A. sih, Setyaningrum, N., Widyartini, D. S., & Ardli, E. R. (2021b). Key species of phytoplankton in eastern Part of Segara Anakan Indonesia Based on Season. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 22(3), 135-142. google scholar
  • Prasetyaningsih, A., & Sahidin, A. (2019). Saprobic plankton index as bioindicator determines pollution status in Green Canyon River, Pangandaran, Indonesia. World Scientific News, 136, 66-77. google scholar
  • Pujiindiyati, E. R., Satrio, & Prasetio, R. (2019). Major ions for tracing leachate migration within shallow groundwater in the vicinity of municipal landfill in Bantar Gebang - Bekasi. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 19(1), 19-29. google scholar
  • Regional Regulation of South Tangerang City Number 9 of 2019. (2019). on Amendment of Regional Regulation Number 15 of 2011 on Spatial Planning for South Tangerang City of 2011-2031 (in Indonesia). Retrieved in 2022, March 25, from https://jdih.tangerangselatankota. google scholar
  • Reynolds, C. S., Huszar, V., Kruk, C., Naselli-Flores, L., & Melo, S. (2002). Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplankton. Journal of Plankton Research, 24(5), 417-428. google scholar
  • Rijaluddin, A. F., Wijayanti, F., & Joni, D. A. N. (2017). Community structure of macrozoobenthos at Gintung Lake , Bungur Lake and Kuru Lake , East Ciputat (in Indonesia). Journal of Environmental Engineering, 18(2), 139-147. google scholar
  • Salam, A. (2010). Water quality analysis of Bungur Lake Ciputat based on the phytoplankton diversity index (in Indonesia). Bachelor Thesis. Jakarta: Faculty of Science and Technology, Islamic State University Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. google scholar
  • Sobolev, D., Moore, K., & Morris, A. L. (2009). Nutrients and light limitation of phytoplankton biomass in a turbid Southeastern Reservoir: implications for water quality. Southeastern Naturalist, 8(2), 255-266. google scholar
  • Stamenkovic, M., Steinwall, E., & Wulff, A. (2021). Cultivation and photophysiological characteristics of desmids in moderately saline aquaculture wastewater. Journal of Phycology, 57(3), 726-741. google scholar
  • Sulastri. (2018). Phytoplankton in Java Island lakes: Their diversity and role as a bioindicator (in Indonesia). Bogor: LIPI Press. google scholar
  • Sulastri, Henny, C., & Nomosatryo, S. (2019). Phytoplankton diversity and trophic status of the waters of Lake Maninjau in West Sumatra, Indonesia (in Indonesia). Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon, 5(2), 242-250. google scholar
  • Sulawesty, F., & Aisyah, S. (2020). Phytoplankton community and relationship to water quality in the permanent area of lake tempe, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux, 13(4), 2302-2311. google scholar
  • Suthers, I. M., & Rissik, D. (2009). Plankton:A Guide to Their Ecology and Monitoring for Water Quality. Collingwood VIC: CSIRO Publishing. google scholar
  • Toma, J. (2019). Algae as indicator to assess trophic status in Duhok Lake, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Journal of Garmian University, 6, 90-98. google scholar
  • Utomo, Y., Priyono, B., & Ngabekti, S. (2013). Saprobity of the Juwana River waters based on plankton bioindicators (in Indonesia). Journal of Life Science, 2(1), 28-35 pp. google scholar
  • van Vuuren, S. J., Taylor, J., van Ginkel, C., & Gerber, A. (2006). A guide for the identification of microscopic algae in South African freshwaters. Potchefstroom: Resource Quality Services (RQS). google scholar
  • Vardaka, E., Moustaka-Gouni, M., & Lanaras, T. (2000). Temporal and spatial distribution of planktic cyanobacteria in Lake Kastoria, Greece, a shallow, urban lake. Nordic Journal of Botany, 20(4), 501-511. google scholar
  • Verla, E. N., Verla, A. W., & Enyoh, C. E. (2020). Finding a relationship between physicochemical characteristics and ionic composition of River Nworie, Imo State, Nigeria. PeerJ Analytical Chemistry, 2, e5. google scholar
  • Vicentin, A. M., Rodrigues, E. H. C., Moschini-Carlos, V, & Pompeo, M. L. M. (2018). Is it possible to evaluate the ecological status of a reservoir using the phytoplankton community?. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, 30, e306, 1-15. google scholar
  • Vijayakumari, V., Prasad, G., & Albert Moses, S. (2018). Selecting a suitable diversity index for a tropical Ramsar wetland site. Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management, 23(2), 139-151. google scholar
  • Wang, X., Wang, Y., Liu, L., Shu, J., Zhu, Y., & Zhou, J. (2013). Phytoplankton and eutrophication degree assessment of Baiyangdian lake wetland, China. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 1-8. google scholar
  • Wang, Z., & Yan, S. H. (2017). Direct and strong influence of water hyacinth on aquatic communities in natural waters. In S. Yan & J. Y. Guo (Eds.), Water Hyacinth: Environmental Challenges, Management and Utilization (1st ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press, 44-65. google scholar
  • Wijaya, N. I., & Elfiansyah, M. (2022). The influence of nitrate and phosphate concentration on the abundance of plankton at the estuary of Bengawan Solo, Gresik, East Java. AACL Bioflux, 15(1), 8395. google scholar
  • World Health Organization. (2017). Guidelines for drinking-water quality: first addendum to the fourth edition. Geneva: World Health Organization. google scholar
  • Yuliana, & Irfan, M. (2018). The best incubation time for primary productivity of phytoplankton in Laguna Lake, North Maluku, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 19(3), 1021-1028. google scholar
  • Yusuf, Z. H. (2020). Phytoplankton as bioindicators of water quality in Nasarawa reservoir , Katsina State Nigeria. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, 32, e4, 1-11. google scholar
  • Zeng, L., He, F., Zhang, Y., Liu, B., Dai, Z., Zhou, Q., & Wu, Z. (2017). How submerged macrophyte restoration promotes a shift of phytoplankton community in a shallow subtropical lake. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 26(3), 1363-1373. google scholar
  • Zharifa, A., Fachrul, M. F., & Hendrawan, D. I. (2019). Water quality evaluation of Parigi Lake, South Tangerang City, Banten Province (in Indonesia). Proceedings of the National Conference on Sustainable Region and Urban Development, 1(1), 177-186 pp. google scholar
  • Zhou, Q., Wang, W., Huang, L., Zhang, Y., Qin, J., Li, K., & Chen, L. (2019). Spatial and temporal variability in water transparency in Yunnan Plateau lakes, China. Aquatic Sciences, 81(2), 0. google scholar
  • Zhu, H., Liu, X. G., & Cheng, S. P. (2021). Phytoplankton community structure and water quality assessment in an ecological restoration area of Baiyangdian Lake, China. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 18(6), 1529-1536. google scholar


Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format



Assuyuti, Y.M., Wicaksono, A.Z., Dasumiati, D., Hidayah, K., Ramadhan, F., Rijaluddin, A.F., & Haribowo, D.R. (2023). Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, 38(4), 194-204.


Assuyuti Y M, Wicaksono A Z, Dasumiati D, Hidayah K, Ramadhan F, Rijaluddin A F, Haribowo D R. Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering. 2023;38(4):194-204.


Assuyuti, Y.M.; Wicaksono, A.Z.; Dasumiati, D.; Hidayah, K.; Ramadhan, F.; Rijaluddin, A.F.; Haribowo, D.R. Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, [Publisher Location], v. 38, n. 4, p. 194-204, 2023.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Assuyuti, Yayan Mardiansyah, and Ahmad Zulfikar Wicaksono and Dasumiati Dasumiati and Khohirul Hidayah and Firdaus Ramadhan and Alfan Farhan Rijaluddin and Dinda Rama Haribowo. 2023. “Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator.” Aquatic Sciences and Engineering 38, no. 4: 194-204.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Assuyuti, Yayan Mardiansyah, and Ahmad Zulfikar Wicaksono and Dasumiati Dasumiati and Khohirul Hidayah and Firdaus Ramadhan and Alfan Farhan Rijaluddin and Dinda Rama Haribowo. Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator.” Aquatic Sciences and Engineering 38, no. 4 (Mar. 2024): 194-204.

Harvard: Australian Style

Assuyuti, YM & Wicaksono, AZ & Dasumiati, D & Hidayah, K & Ramadhan, F & Rijaluddin, AF & Haribowo, DR 2023, 'Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator', Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 194-204, viewed 5 Mar. 2024,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Assuyuti, Y.M. and Wicaksono, A.Z. and Dasumiati, D. and Hidayah, K. and Ramadhan, F. and Rijaluddin, A.F. and Haribowo, D.R. (2023) ‘Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator’, Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, 38(4), pp. 194-204. (5 Mar. 2024).


Assuyuti, Yayan Mardiansyah, and Ahmad Zulfikar Wicaksono and Dasumiati Dasumiati and Khohirul Hidayah and Firdaus Ramadhan and Alfan Farhan Rijaluddin and Dinda Rama Haribowo. Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator.” Aquatic Sciences and Engineering, vol. 38, no. 4, 2023, pp. 194-204. [Database Container],


Assuyuti YM, Wicaksono AZ, Dasumiati D, Hidayah K, Ramadhan F, Rijaluddin AF, Haribowo DR. Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering [Internet]. 5 Mar. 2024 [cited 5 Mar. 2024];38(4):194-204. Available from: doi: 10.26650/ASE20231267923


Assuyuti, YayanMardiansyah - Wicaksono, AhmadZulfikar - Dasumiati, Dasumiati - Hidayah, Khohirul - Ramadhan, Firdaus - Rijaluddin, AlfanFarhan - Haribowo, DindaRama. Urban Lakes, South Tangerang City Based on Water Quality Index and Phytoplankton Composition as Bioindicator”. Aquatic Sciences and Engineering 38/4 (Mar. 2024): 194-204.


Published Online11.09.2023


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.