Research Article


DOI :10.26650/jes.2020.001   IUP :10.26650/jes.2020.001    Full Text (PDF)

The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars

Burcu Özdemir

A series of wars between Russia and the Ottoman Empire began in the sixteenth century but reached enormous levels in the early eighteenth century. Especially the 19th century was politically difficult for the Ottoman Empire. Its territory losses that began in previous centuries, continued to increase in this period as well. The most important factor in the territory losses experienced in the nineteenth century was the growing trend of nationalism throughout the world, and the Empire recognized the independence of Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. During the years when the Ottoman Empire tried to strengthen itself through reforms, the wars with Russia weighed heavily on the state. The greatest struggle in this century was fought against the Russians -with the wars of 1806-1812, 1828-1829, 1853-1856 and 1877-1878. In these wars against the Ottoman Empire, Russia benefited from the Armenians as allies. One reason the Armenians fought alongside the Russians against the Ottoman Empire was religion. The Armenians saw the Russians as a saviour who would liberate them from the domination of a Muslim state. Another reason was the Armenian dream of a Great Armenian State. They believed that they could achieve this dream with the help of the Russians. Therefore, the Armenians fought alongside the Russians in the wars between the Ottoman Empire and Russia during the nineteenth century, where they served the Russian forces by taking part in the wars as soldiers or agents for the Russians in the Ottoman Empire. In this study, the wars between the Ottoman and Russian Empires in the nineteenth century, the reasons for the wars and finally the role of the Armenians in the Ottoman-Russian wars of the 19th century will be discussed. 

DOI :10.26650/jes.2020.001   IUP :10.26650/jes.2020.001    Full Text (PDF)

19. Yüzyıl Türk-Rus Savaşlarında Ermeni Faktörü

Burcu Özdemir

Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Rusya arasında ilk mücadeleler 16. yüzyılda başlamış ise de 18. yüzyılın başlarında kritik bir seviyeye ulaşmıştır. Bilhassa 19. yüzyıl, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu açısından oldukça zor geçmiş, önceki yüzyıllarda başlayan toprak kayıpları, bu dönemde artarak devam etmiştir. 19.yüzyılda yaşanan toprak kayıplarında en önemli faktör, tüm dünyada gittikçe güçlenen milliyetçilik akımı olmuş ve Osmanlı yönetimi; Romanya, Sırbistan, Karadağ ve Yunanistan’ın bağımsızlığını tanımak zorunda kalmıştır. Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun reformlar vasıtasıyla kendini güçlendirmeye çabaladığı yıllarda Rusya ile yapılan savaşlar, tüm ağırlığıyla devletin üzerine çökmüştür. Nitekim bu yüzyılda en büyük mücadele; 1806-1812, 1828-1829, 1853-1856 ve 1877-1878 savaşları ile, Ruslara karşı verilmiştir. Rusya, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’na karşı gerçekleştirdiği tüm bu savaşlarda Ermenilerden müttefik olarak istifade etme yoluna gitmiştir. Ermenilerin, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’na karşı Rusların yanında yer almalarının nedenlerinden biri, dini bağlardı. Ermeniler, Rusları kendilerini Müslüman bir devletin hakimiyetinden kurtaracak olan bir kurtarıcı olarak gördüler. Bir diğer neden ise, Ermenilerin, “Büyük Ermeni Devleti” hayaliydi. Onlar, bu hayali Ruslar yardımıyla gerçekleştirebileceklerine inanmıştı. Ermeniler, bu gerekçelerle 19. yüzyıl boyunca Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ile Rusya arasında yaşanan savaşlarda Rusların yanında savaşmış; doğrudan savaşlarda asker olarak yer almak veyahut Osmanlı topraklarında Ruslar için ajanlık yapmak suretiyle Rus kuvvetlerine hizmet etmiştir. Bu çalışma, 19.yüzyıl boyunca Osmanlı ve Rusya İmparatorluğu arasında yaşanan savaşları, bunların hangi sebeplerle meydana geldiklerini ve son olarak, Ermenilerin Osmanlı ve Rusya arasında yaşanan bu savaşlarda nasıl bir rol üstlendiklerini ortaya koymaya çalışmaktadır. 


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


A series of wars between Russia and the Ottoman Empire began in the sixteenth century but reached enormous levels in the early eighteenth century. Especially the 19th century was politically difficult for the Ottoman Empire. Its territory losses that began in previous centuries, continued to increase in this period as well. The most important factor in the territory losses experienced in the nineteenth century was the growing trend of nationalism throughout the world, and Empire recognized the independence of Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. 

In order to find a solution to these problems, the Ottoman administration was undergoing a serious reform process. Mahmud II, who ascended the throne in 1808, raised the Janissary odjak and built a modern army; in addition, he introduced innovations in the field of education and clothing. The Reform process continued with the 1839 Tanzimat and 1856 Islahat edicts. The Edict of Islahat, promulgated in 1856, eliminated the disparity between Muslims and non-Muslims. The aim of these reforms was to reduce the pressure of the European powers using non-Muslims. During the years when the Ottoman Empire tried to strengthen itself through reforms, the wars with Russia weighed heavily on the state. The greatest struggle in this century was fought against the Russians -with the wars of 1806-1812, 1828-1829, 1853-1856 and 1877-1878. Russia benefited from the weakness of the Ottoman Empire, and increased its activities, especially in cities in the east of the country. Armenians were the most important ally of Russia in these regions.

The Russians benefited from the Armenians as a military force in the wars, and this was not a new situation. In earlier years, the Russians benefited from the Armenians as a military force. Armenians served as spies, and even provided armed units of soldiers to the Russians. For example, in the time of Peter I, the Russians benefited from the Armenians as a military force. After the end of the war with the Swedes in the Baltic Sea, Peter I headed to the Caucasus and used the advantage of being the “master of the Christians”. Thus, he started a struggle in the South Caucasus with the participation of the Armenians and Georgians. Peter's goal was to capture the western and southern coasts of the Caspian Sea, and for this, Peter I benefited from the Armenians and the Georgian King. The Armenians were also active in the RussoPersian and Turkic-Russian wars of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In 1788, volunteer troops were formed from Armenians to participate in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1791 in Nakhchivan. In this battle, there were volunteers in Abramov's troops and there were also other Armenian soldiers serving in different units of the Russian army: Hastatov, Maneyev, Lalayev, Sumbatov, Hodjamalov, Uluhanov, Ayvazov, Vaganov, Mkrtichev, Lazarev, Vasily, Argutinsky-Dolgorukov, etc. In addition, the Armenian state established by the Russians in the Caucasus served the aim of dividing the Turkish world and creating an allied state in the regions where the Turks lived. The Russians also benefited from the Armenians in their wars with Iran.

There were various reasons why the Armenians sided with the Russians against the Ottoman Empire. One reason the Armenians fought alongside the Russians against the Ottoman Empire was religion. The Armenians saw the Russians as a saviour who would liberate them from the domination of a Muslim state. Another reason was the Armenian dream of a Great Armenian State. They believed that they could achieve this dream with the help of the Russians.

As a result, the 19th century was a very complicated and troubled period for Turkish and Armenian relations. The main problem in bilateral relations during this period was the dream of the Armenians to establish the Great Armenian State, and the Armenian’s desires to seize cities in the east of the Ottoman Empire. 

In this study, the wars between the Ottoman and Russian Empire in the nineteenth century, the reasons for the wars and finally the role of Armenians in the Ottoman-Russian wars of the 19th century will be discussed.


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APA

Özdemir, B. (2020). The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars. Journal of Eurasian Inquiries, 9(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.26650/jes.2020.001


AMA

Özdemir B. The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars. Journal of Eurasian Inquiries. 2020;9(1):1-12. https://doi.org/10.26650/jes.2020.001


ABNT

Özdemir, B. The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars. Journal of Eurasian Inquiries, [Publisher Location], v. 9, n. 1, p. 1-12, 2020.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Özdemir, Burcu,. 2020. “The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars.” Journal of Eurasian Inquiries 9, no. 1: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.26650/jes.2020.001


Chicago: Humanities Style

Özdemir, Burcu,. The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars.” Journal of Eurasian Inquiries 9, no. 1 (Jun. 2024): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.26650/jes.2020.001


Harvard: Australian Style

Özdemir, B 2020, 'The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars', Journal of Eurasian Inquiries, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-12, viewed 22 Jun. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/jes.2020.001


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Özdemir, B. (2020) ‘The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars’, Journal of Eurasian Inquiries, 9(1), pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.26650/jes.2020.001 (22 Jun. 2024).


MLA

Özdemir, Burcu,. The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars.” Journal of Eurasian Inquiries, vol. 9, no. 1, 2020, pp. 1-12. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/jes.2020.001


Vancouver

Özdemir B. The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars. Journal of Eurasian Inquiries [Internet]. 22 Jun. 2024 [cited 22 Jun. 2024];9(1):1-12. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/jes.2020.001 doi: 10.26650/jes.2020.001


ISNAD

Özdemir, Burcu. The Armenians in the 19th Turco-Russian Wars”. Journal of Eurasian Inquiries 9/1 (Jun. 2024): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.26650/jes.2020.001



TIMELINE


Submitted06.01.2020
Accepted20.02.2020
Published Online30.03.2020

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