Research Article


DOI :10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148   IUP :10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148    Full Text (PDF)

The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya

Murat Sinan ÖzkanFigen Akça

The old-age period can be seen as an important experience point in the psychological resilience process. In this sense, the high levels of gratitude and self-efficacy of elderly individuals increase their psychological resilience. This study aimed to examine the gratitude, self-efficacy, and psychological resilience levels of elderly individuals. In addition, the study investigated whether the variables differ according to gender. 78 female (39%) and 122 male (61%) elderly individuals participated in the study. Brief Psychological Resilience Scale (BPRS), General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Gratitude Scales were applied to 200 participants in the Elderly Care Center. In this analysis using a relational screening model, the mediator role analysis of Baron and Kenny was performed to determine the mediator effect of life satisfaction together with a t-test. The findings of the study showed that there is a positive relationship between self-efficacy, gratitude, and psychological resilience. The gratitude was determined to have a mediating role in the relationship between the participants’ self-efficacy and psychological resilience. Accordingly, developing the gratitude and self-efficacy skills of the elderly people in elderly care centers or carrying out activities related to this may be beneficial. Thus, it would be appropriate to conduct programs that focus more on self-efficacy and gratitude as two important conditions for preserving the psychological resilience of the elderly.

DOI :10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148   IUP :10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148    Full Text (PDF)

Yaşlı Bireylerde Öz Yeterlik ve Psikolojik Sağlamlık Arasındaki İlişkide Minnettarlığın Aracı Rolü: Malatya İli Örneği

Murat Sinan ÖzkanFigen Akça

Yaşlılık dönemi, psikolojik sağlamlık sürecinde önemli bir tecrübe noktası olarak görülebilmektedir. Bu anlamda yaşlı bireylerin minnettarlık ve öz yetkinlik düzeylerinin yüksek olması sağlamlıklarını da artırmaktadır. Bu çalışmada yaşlı bireylerin minnettarlık, öz yetkinlik ve psikolojik sağlamlık düzeylerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ayrıca değişkenlerin cinsiyete göre farklılık gösterip göstermediği araştırılmıştır. Araştırmaya 78 kadın (%39) 122 erkek (%61) yaşlı birey katılmıştır. Yaşlı Bakım Merkezi’nde bulunan 200 katılımcıya Kısa Psikolojik sağlamlık Ölçeği, Genel Öz yeterlik Ölçeği, Minnettarlık Ölçekleri uygulanmıştır. İlişkisel tarama modelinin kullanıldığı bu analizde, t-testi ile birlikte yaşam doyumunun aracı etkisini belirlemek için Baron ve Kenny’nin aracı rol analizi yapılmıştır. Bu araştırmada bulgulara bakıldığında öz yeterlik ile minnettarlık ve psikolojik sağlamlık arasında pozitif yönde ilişki olduğu görülmektedir. Katılımcıların öz yeterlik ile psikolojik sağlamlık düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkide minnettarlığın aracı role sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Buna göre yaşlı bakım merkezlerinde bulunan yaşlı bireylerin minnettarlık ve öz yeterlik becerilerinin geliştirilmesi veya buna yönelik etkinliklerin yapılması faydalı olabilir. Sonuç olarak, yaşlıların psikolojik sağlamlıklarını koruyabilmenin iki önemli koşulu olarak öz yeterlilik ve minnettarlık üzerinde daha fazla yoğunlaşan programların yapılmasının uygun olacağı söylenebilir.


PDF View

References

  • Akgül, M. (2004). Maturity and piety: A case study of Konya Nursing House. The Journal of Religious Studies, 7(19), 19-56. google scholar
  • Algoe, S. B., Gable, S. L., & Maisel, N. C. (2010). It’s the little things: Everyday gratitude as a booster shot for romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 17(2), 217-233. google scholar
  • Algoe, S. B. (2012). Find, remind, and bind: The functions of gratitude in everyday relationships. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(6), 455-469. https://doi.Org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00439. google scholar
  • Altıntaş H. K, Ayyıldız T. K, Emiroğlu O. N, Çamdeviren E. K. (2012). Huzurevinde yaşayan yaşlıların öz yeterlilik algılarının ve sağlıklı yaşam biçimi davranışlarının değerlendirilmesi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Elektronik Dergisi, 5(2), 53 - 64. google scholar
  • Arnout, B. A., & Almoied, A. A. (2020). A structural model relating gratitude, resilience, psychological well-being and creativity among psychological counsellors. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research. 20(3), 406-418. https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12316 google scholar
  • Aypay, A. (2010). The adaptation study of general self-efficacy (gse) scale to Turkish. İnönü University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 11(2), 113-131. google scholar
  • Bahar, A., Tutkun, H. & Sertbaş, G. (2005). Huzurevinde yaşayan yaşlıların anksiyete ve depresyon düzeylerinin belirlenmesi. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 6, 27-39. google scholar
  • Baldwin, K. M., Baldwin, J. R., & Ewald, T. (2006). The Relationship among shame, guilt and self-efficacy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 60(1), 1-23 google scholar
  • Bandura, A. (1994). Self-Efficacy. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 4, 71-81. google scholar
  • Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of personality. In D. Cervone & Y. Shoda, (Eds.), The coherence of personality: Social-cognitive bases of consistency, variability, and organization (pp. 185-241). New York: Guilford Press. google scholar
  • Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173 google scholar
  • Bowling, A. (2007). Aspirations for older age in the 21st century: What is successful aging? The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 64(3), 263-297. google scholar
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2006). Sosyal bilimleri için veri analizi el kitabı istatistik araştırma deseni-SPSS uygulamaları ve yorum. Pegem A Press. google scholar
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş. & Demirel, F. (2014). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (17. Edition). Pegem Press. google scholar
  • Canatan, A. (2008), Sosyal yönleriyle yaşlılık. Palme Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54(3), 165-181. google scholar
  • Carstensen, L. L., & Mikels, J. A. (2005). At the intersection of emotionand cognition: Aging and the positivity effect. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14,117-121. google scholar
  • Ceyhan, S. (2005). Kayseri nuh naci yazgan sağlik ocaği bölgesinde yaşayan 65 ve üstü bireylerin yalnizlik düzeylerinin incelenmesi. Erciyes Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Hemşirelik Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Kayseri. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/tezSorguSonucYeni.jsp. google scholar
  • Choi, J. N. (2004). Individual and contextual predictors of creative performance: the mediating role of psychological processes. Creativity Research Journal, 16(2-3), 187-199, doi: 10.1080/10400419.2004.9651452 google scholar
  • Compas, B. E., Campbell, L. K., Robinson, K. E., & Rodriguez, E. M. (2009). Coping and memory automatic and controlled processes in responses to stress. In J. Quas & R. Fivush (Eds.), Emotion in memory and development: Biological, cognitive, and social considerations. New York: Oxford University Press. google scholar
  • Deniz, E. M., (2017). Eğitim psikolojisi. Pegem Academy. google scholar
  • Doğan, T. (2015). Kısa psikolojik sağlamlik ölçeği’nin türkçe uyarlamasi. The Journal of Happiness and Well- Being, 3(1), 93-102. google scholar
  • Emiroğlu, V. (1995). Yaşlılık ve yaşlının sosyal uyumu. Safak Press. google scholar
  • Emmons, R., & Crumpler, C. (2000). Gratitude as a human strength: Appraising the evidence. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 56-69. google scholar
  • Emmons, R. A. (2007). Thanks!: How the new science of gratitude can make you happier. Houghton Mifflin Company. google scholar
  • Frazier, P.A., Tix, A.P., & Barron, K.E. (2004). Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(1), 115-134. google scholar
  • Fung, H. H., Carstensen, L. L., & Lutz, A. M. (1999). Influence of time on social preferences: Implications for life-span development. Psychology and Aging, 14(4), 595-604. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.14.4.595 google scholar
  • Hayes, A. (2016), “No title the process macro for spss and sas.” google scholar
  • Gooding, PA, Hurst A., Johnson, J.& Tarrier, N. (2012) Psychological resilience in young and older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 27(3), 262-270 google scholar
  • Isaacowitz, D. M., Wadlinger, H. A., Goren, D., & Wilson, H. R. (2006). Is there an age-related positivity effect in visual attention? A comparison of two methodologies. Emotion, 6(3), 511-516. https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.6.3.511 google scholar
  • Jerusalem, M., & Schwarzer, R. (1992). Self-efficacy as a resource factor in stress appraisal processes. R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 195-213). Hemisphere Publishing Corp. google scholar
  • Karasar, N. (2005). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi. Nobel Press. google scholar
  • Kelley, R. B., Zyzanski, S. J., & Alemagno, S. A. (1991). Prediction of motivation and behavior change following health promotion: role of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy (abstract). SocialScience in Medicine, 32(3), 311-320. google scholar
  • Kirby, L.D. & Fraser, M. W. (Ed.). (1997). Risk and resilience in childhood. NASW Press. google scholar
  • Kumpfer, K.L. (1999). Factors and processes contributing to resilience: The resilience framework. Glantz, M. D. & Johnson, J. L. (Ed.), Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations içinde (pp. 179-224). Kluwer Acedemic/Plenum Press. google scholar
  • Luszczynska, A., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). The general self-efficacy scale: multicultural validation studies. The Journal of Psychology, 139(5), 439-457. https://doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.139.5.439-457 google scholar
  • Maddux, J. E. (1995). Self-efficacy theory: An introduction. In J. E. Maddux (Ed.), The Plenum series in social/clinical psychology. Self-efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application (pp. 3-33). Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-6868-5_1 google scholar
  • Masten, A.S. & Coatsworth, J.D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments. American Psychologist, 53(2), 205-222. google scholar
  • Masten, A.S., Hubbard, J. J., Gest, S. D., Tellegen, A., Garmezy, N., & Ramirez, M. (1999). Competence in the context of adversity: Pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 143-169. google scholar
  • Masten A.S. (2001) Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227-238. google scholar
  • Masten, Ann S. & Gewirtz, Abigail H. (2006). Resilience in development: The importance of early childhood. Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy, http://hdl.handle.net/11299/53904. google scholar
  • Meredith, L. S., Sherbourne, C. D. & Gaillot, S. J. (2011). Promoting psychological resilience in the US military. Rand Corporation. google scholar
  • McCullough, M., Kilpatrick, S., Emmons, R., & Larson, D. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 249-266. https://doi. org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.2.249. google scholar
  • McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J. A., & Emmons, R. A. (2004). Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience. Journal of personality and social psychology, 86(2), 295-309. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.86.2.295 google scholar
  • Montoya, A.K. & Hayes, A.F. (2017). Two-condition within-participant statistical mediation analysis: A path-analytic framework. Psychological Methods, 22(1), 6-27. google scholar
  • Mather M., & Carstensen L. L. (2005). Aging and motivated cognition: the positivity effect in attention and memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 496-502 Doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.07.010 google scholar
  • Nelson, C. (2009). Appreciating gratitude: Can gratitude be used as a psychological intervention to improve individual well-being? Counselling Psychology Review, 24(34), 38-50. google scholar
  • Oğuz Duran, N. & Tan, Ş. (2013). Minnettarlik ve yaşam amaçlari yazma çalişmalarinin öznel iyi oluşa etkisi. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(40), 154-166. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org. tr/tr/pub/tpdrd/issue/21460/229894 google scholar
  • Onur, B. (2000). Gelişim psikolojisi:(yetişkinlik-yaşlılık-ölüm). Sefat Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Pallant, J. (2005) SPSS survival guide: a step by step guide to data analysis using spss for windows ( 3rd Edition). Open University Press. google scholar
  • Park, N., Peterson, C. & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psycholog, 23, 603-619. google scholar
  • Preacher, K. J., & Kelley, K. (2011). Effect size measures for mediation models: Quantitative strategies for communicating indirect effects. Psychological Methods, 16(2), 93-115. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022658 google scholar
  • Radke-Yarrow, M., & Brown, E. (1993). Resilience and vulnerability in children of multiple-risk families. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 581-592. google scholar
  • Reed, A. E., & Carstensen, L. L. (2012). The theory behind the age-relatedpositivity effect. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1-9. google scholar
  • Saygun, M. & Çakmak, A. (2004), Kırıkkale İli dört ve sekiz nolu sağlik ocaği bölgelerinde yaşayan 65 yaş ve üzeri kişilerin bazi sağlik ve sosyal durumlarinin saptanmasi ve yaşam kalitelerinin değerlendirilmesi, 9. Ulusal Halk Sağlığı Günleri Bildiri Özet Kitabı, Ankara. google scholar
  • Sebuktekin, D. (2018). Examining the relationship between post-traumatic growth, shaking in basic beliefs and psychological (Master’s thesis). Psychology, Gaziantep, Turkey. https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/ tezSorguSonucYeni.jsp google scholar
  • Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (Eds.) (1994). Gesellschaftlicher umbruch als kritisches lebensereignis [Macrosocial change as critical life event]. Juventa Press. google scholar
  • Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, and M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: a user'sportfolio. Causal and Control Beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor Press. google scholar
  • Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Jennifer Bernard, J. (2008). The brief resilience scale: Assessing the ability to bounce back. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, 194-200 google scholar
  • Wang, C., & Liu, Y. (2000). The relational study on general self-efficacy, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and test anxiety. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(4), 229-230. google scholar
  • Watkins, P. C. (2004). Gratitude and subjective well-being. In R. A. Emmons & M. E. McCullough (Eds.), The psychology of gratitude (pp. 167-192). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/ acprof:oso/9780195150100.003.0009 google scholar
  • Watkins, P. C. (2014). Gratitude and the good life: Toward a psychology of appreciation. Springer Science Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7253-3 google scholar
  • Wood, A. M., Maltby, J., Stewart, N., Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2008). A social-cognitive model of trait and state levels of gratitude. Emotion, 8(2), 281-290. google scholar
  • Yüksel, A., & Oğuz Duran, N. (2012). Turkish adaptation of the gratitude questionnaire. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 46, 199-216. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Özkan, M.S., & Akça, F. (2022). The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, 0(62), 123-142. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148


AMA

Özkan M S, Akça F. The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences. 2022;0(62):123-142. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148


ABNT

Özkan, M.S.; Akça, F. The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 62, p. 123-142, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Özkan, Murat Sinan, and Figen Akça. 2022. “The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya.” Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences 0, no. 62: 123-142. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148


Chicago: Humanities Style

Özkan, Murat Sinan, and Figen Akça. The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya.” Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences 0, no. 62 (Nov. 2022): 123-142. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148


Harvard: Australian Style

Özkan, MS & Akça, F 2022, 'The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya', Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, vol. 0, no. 62, pp. 123-142, viewed 27 Nov. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Özkan, M.S. and Akça, F. (2022) ‘The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya’, Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, 0(62), pp. 123-142. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148 (27 Nov. 2022).


MLA

Özkan, Murat Sinan, and Figen Akça. The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya.” Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences, vol. 0, no. 62, 2022, pp. 123-142. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148


Vancouver

Özkan MS, Akça F. The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences [Internet]. 27 Nov. 2022 [cited 27 Nov. 2022];0(62):123-142. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148 doi: 10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148


ISNAD

Özkan, MuratSinan - Akça, Figen. The Mediating Role of Gratitude in the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Psychological Resilience in Elderly Individuals: The Case of Malatya”. Connectist: Istanbul University Journal of Communication Sciences 0/62 (Nov. 2022): 123-142. https://doi.org/10.26650/CONNECTIST2022-880148



TIMELINE


Submitted19.02.2021
Accepted11.11.2021
Published Online17.05.2022

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.