Poetics of The House in Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu’s Play SağanakBahar Yıldırım Sağlam
A house is a shelter with rooms, walls, corridors, and corners. It holds the household together and carries traces of its individual members. According to Gaston Bachelard’s The Poetics of Space, the house is our domain on earth, our first universe; it is the shelter of an unforgettable past. The conflict and unrest experienced by the residents of the house also infiltrate into the rooms, walls, and furniture of the house. In Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu’s play Sağanak, the house also reflects the history, memory, and culture of the people who live in it. The house draws a complex picture of the duality between Afif Mollah, Mister Lûtfi, Eşref, and Belkıs. Eastern culture and Western culture intermingle in the halls, furniture, and order of the house. Conflicts inside the house turn the house upside down. The roof that holds the members of the house together falls apart. Bachelard follows a phenomenological method in The Poetics of Space and constructs his approach to space with images. In this article, the phenomenological method followed by Bachelard in the The Poetics of Space was used and it was aimed to analyze the image of the house found in Karaosmanoğlu’s play Sağanak with the spatial images Bachelard used. The house, which is one of the main elements that make up the space in the play, has been determined to turn into an image that separates the inside and the outside, the family and the stranger, the safe and the dangerous, and when it loses this function, it is symbolically collapses.
Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu’nun SağanakAdlı Oyununda Evin PoetikasıBahar Yıldırım Sağlam
Ev; odaları, duvarları, koridorları ve köşeleriyle bir sığınaktır. İçinde yaşayanları bir arada tutar, onların izlerini taşır. Gaston Bachelard’ın Uzamın Poetikası’na göre ev; dünyadaki köşemiz, ilk evrenimizdir, unutulmayan bir geçmişin barınağıdır. Bachelard’a göre ev, insan ruhuna ilişkin bir çözümleme aracı sunar. Ev halkının yaşadığı çatışma, huzursuzluk evin odalarına, duvarlarına ve eşyalarına da sızar. Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu’nun Sağanak adlı oyununda da ev; içinde yaşayanların tarihini, hafızasını, kültürünü yansıtır. Afif Molla, Lûtfi Bey, Eşref ve Belkıs arasındaki ikiliğin karmaşık bir görüntüsünü çizer. Evin salonlarında, mobilyasında, nizamında Doğu kültürü ile Batı kültürü birbirine karışır. Evin içindeki anlaşmazlıklar evi altüst eder. Evin fertlerini bir arada tutan çatı dağılır. Bachelard Uzamın Poetikası’nda fenomenolojik bir yöntem izler ve mekân yaklaşımını imgelerle inşa eder. Bu makalede de Bachelard’ın Uzamın Poetikası’nda izlediği fenomenolojik yöntem ele alınmış ve Bachelard’ın kullandığı mekânsal imgelerle Karaosmanoğlu’nun Sağanak adlı oyunundaki ev imgesini analiz etmek amaçlanmıştır. Oyunda mekânı oluşturan başat unsurlardan olan evin; içerisi ile dışarısını, aile ile yabancıyı, güvenli ve tehlikeliyi birbirinden ayıran bir imgeye dönüştüğü, bu işlevini yitirdiğindeyse sembolik olarak yıkıldığı tespit edilmiştir.
Bachelard follows a phenomenological method in The Poetics of Space. He reveals the space approach with images of houses, dreams, doors, drawers, chests, nests, and shells. He focuses on the dialectic of the inside and outside and of big and small. He explores binary oppositions, such as ascending and descending, opening-closing, and corners and folds. He examines the images of spaces, such as miniature, forest, steppe, cellar, attic which evoke infinity, loneliness, fear, and anxiety, as well as reflect the poetics of the house. Bachelard’s poetics of space examines depth, roundness, and immensity. It scrutinizes the folds of the snail and the seashell, the depth of the well and the mirror, and houses as big as chickpeas. It decodes the images of empty drawers, locked cabinets, and privacy. It explores images of the forest cottage and the lakeside house, of water and fire.In Karaosmanoğlu’s play Sağanak, the house reflects the identity, memory, education, and the ideas of those who live in it. The house reveals the generational conflict and East-West duality between Afif Molla, Mister Lûtfi, Eşref, and Belkıs. It draws a discordant image where old and new values are intermixed and turned upside down. The house is divided by those who represent the tradition and those who advocate the new. Eşref and Belkıs are similar to each other. Both represent the new generation of young people with ideals who are newly educated, defending modern ideas and Western fashions. Mister Lûtfi is a traditionally educated person, trying to preserve the old and struggling with new ideas. Afif Molla, on the other hand, is a complete defender of the past in terms of education, culture, and civilization.Afif Molla, who defends the old order, reflects the East-West duality he finds himself in with his fez and dressing gown. The house is the domain of power. The layout of the house shows its internal hierarchy. The owner of the house is also the owner of the power. Afif Molla manages the order in the house, determines the hierarchy, and shows himself as the authority. According to him, the old-style order will exist as long as those who represent the tradition live. This duality between the old and the new shakes the social order and alienates the members of the house from each other. Family members who adopt western fashions leave the mansion, which has been arranged according to Turkish style. In Turkish literature, leaving the mansion symbolizes the collapse of tradition and the breaking of family ties. In Sağanak, while Afif Molla and Mister Lûtfi preserve their traditional roots, Eşref and Belkıs turn into strangers in the house they live in and break away from their roots.Throughout the play, husband-wife, father-son, brother-sister, and father-bride clash with each other. When the family members brought together by the house leave the house one by one, the unifying and protectiveness of the roof disappears, and the house falls apart. The clash of old and new symbolically destroys the house. The disintegration of the house represents the division of the family, the breaking of kinship ties, and the loss of roots.In this article, Karaosmanoğlu’s play Sağanak will be analyzed within the framework of Bachelard’s The Poetics of Space. First of all, Bachelard’s theory of space will be emphasized, before Karaosmanoğlu’s play Sağanak will be evaluated in light of Bachelard’s theory. The importance of Karaosmanoğlu’s plays Sağanak, Nirvana, Veda, and Mağara are explicit in terms of Turkish theater history. Although extensive research has been carried out on the author’s novels, relatively few studies have been made on his theatrical works. This article aims to contribute to the studies on the theatrical works of Karaosmanoğlu.