Effect of MCP-1 and CCR2 Serum Levels on COVID-19 SeveritySelen Zeliha Mart Kömürcü, Şeydanur Doğan, Ebru Kaya, Sevim Yavaş, Serkan Doğan, Utku Murat Kalafat, Hayriye Şentürk Çiftçi, Selçuk Daşdemir
Objective: Approximately 80% of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are asymptomatic, and only a small proportion of cases show serious consequences leading to hospitalization. The interplay between chemokines and their receptors can affect the severity of several infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. The interplay of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with its receptor C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) may affect the pathogenesis of COVID-19 by functioning in the dispatch of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages to the infection site.
Materials and Methods: The serum MCP-1 and CCR2 concentrations were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 49 asymptomatic, 50 severe, and 57 critical COVID-19 cases.
Results: Serum MCP-1 levels were considerably higher in critical cases than in cases in the other two groups, suggesting an increased risk for disease severity (p = 0.008; p = 0.01, respectively). Serum CCR2 levels were significantly higher in asymptomatic cases than in critical cases suggesting a protective role against disease severity (p = 0.001).
Conclusion: MCP-1 and CCR2 may be candidate biomarkers for the prediction of disease severity. Therefore, by measuring serum levels of MCP-1 and CCR2 early, the disease course can be predicted , and necessary precautions can be taken before the disease becomes severe.