Review Article

DOI :10.26650/hfaa.2024.1470873   IUP :10.26650/hfaa.2024.1470873    Full Text (PDF)

The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry

Zeynep GenceSümeyye Aleyna UralElif Aksu

The aim of this study is to propose a research model that examines the relation between job satisfaction and turnover intentions, considering the moderating roles of workload and proactive personality. Recruiting and training new personnel create significant workloads for organizations, both in terms of time and money. Given that the aviation sector is intensive and variable in nature, it is necessary to investigate the job satisfaction and turnover intentions of employees within this sector. This research model, specifically designed for cabin crew members, recommends conducting a quantitative study and reaching participants through the convenience sampling method. It proposes using the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale to measure job satisfaction, the Turnover Intention Scale to measure turnover intentions, the Workload Scale to measure workload, and the Proactive Personality Scale to assess proactive personality. It is anticipated that the study conducted using this proposed model will provide valuable data for steps to be taken to improve the working environment in the aviation sector. This model, which can contribute to the enhancement of the working environment, is expected to produce positive results for both employees and businesses and is thought to benefit the field by increasing aviation safety. 

DOI :10.26650/hfaa.2024.1470873   IUP :10.26650/hfaa.2024.1470873    Full Text (PDF)

İş Tatmini ve İşten Ayrılma Niyeti Arasındaki İlişkide İş Yükü ve Proaktif Kişiliğin Düzenleyici Rolü: Havacılık Sektöründe Bir Araştırma Modeli

Zeynep GenceSümeyye Aleyna UralElif Aksu

Çalışmanın amacı, iş tatmini düzeyi ile işten ayrılma niyeti arasındaki ilişkiyi ve bu ilişkide iş yükü ve proaktif kişiliğin düzenleyici rolü açısından inceleyen bir araştırma model önerisi sunmaktır. Organizasyona yeni personel istihdam etmek ve eğitmek hem zaman hem de maddi anlamda organizasyonlar için önemli bir iş yükü oluşturmaktadır. Havacılık sektörünün doğası gereği yoğun ve değişken olması, bu sektörde çalışanların iş tatminleri ve işten ayrılma niyetlerinin araştırılması gerekliliğini ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Kabin memurları özelinde yürütülmesi planlanan bu araştırma modelinde kantitatif bir çalışma yapılması ve kolayda örnekleme yöntemi ile katılımcılara ulaşılması önerilmektedir. İş tatminini ölçmek için Minnesota İş Tatmini Ölçeği, işten ayrılma niyetini ölçebilmek için İşten Ayrılma Niyeti Ölçeği, iş yükünü ölçmek için İş Yükü Ölçeği ve proaktif kişiliği değerlendirmek için Proaktif Kişilik Ölçeği’nin kullanılması önerilmiştir. Önerilen model kullanılarak yapılacak çalışmanın, havacılık sektöründeki çalışma ortamının iyileştirilmesine yönelik atılacak adımlara iyi bir veri sunacağı düşünülmektedir. Çalışma ortamının iyileştirilmesine katkı sunabilecek bu modelin, hem çalışan hem de işletme açısından olumlu sonuçlar ortaya çıkarabileceği düşünülmekte ve havacılık emniyetini arttırma konusunda alana fayda sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. 


The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention and to present a model that explores the interactions and moderating roles of workload and proactive personality in this context. Cabin crew members, who are integral to the aviation industry, face challenges due to the nature of their job (Liu et al., 2020). These challenges include the working environment, working hours, and negative interactions with passengers (Liu et al., 2020). Factors such as high altitude, confinement to the aircraft cabin, and low air quality define the flight environment. These adverse conditions, including radiation exposure, aircraft noise, and turbulence, can have a psychological and physiological impact on cabin crew members (McNeely et al., 2018). Another significant issue is the irregular and frequently changing working hours inherent to the cabin crew profession (Karatepe et al., 2016). Additionally, interactions with passengers can be challenging, potentially leading to fatigue and stress for the crew (Feijo et al., 2014). Cabin crew members not only shape the image of the airline but also play a crucial role in ensuring aviation safety (Liu et al., 2020). 

Job satisfaction can be defined as the pleasant or positive emotional state resulting from an individual's appraisal of their job or work experiences (Locke, 1969). A person's job satisfaction is high if they have a positive attitude toward their job; conversely, it is low if they hold a negative attitude (Erdoğan, 1994). Individuals subjectively evaluate and deem important factors that influence job satisfaction (Korkmaz et al., 2013). High salaries motivate some employees, while others prioritize learning and development opportunities (Muslim et al., 2024). The job itself, its nature, and relationships with colleagues and superiors generally influence job satisfaction. A fair evaluation system in the workplace is also considered effective (Robbins and Judge, 2017). Research has shown that a heavy workload, including jet lag, emotional exhaustion, and role overload, negatively impacts the general well-being and job satisfaction of cabin crew (Ng et al., 2011).

Turnover intention is defined as the employee's plan to leave the organization, weighing whether to stay with their current employer or to leave their job. While organizations attempt to address the factors influencing this behavior, employee turnover remains a significant issue. No standard framework fully explains the employee turnover process, but individual, environmental, and organizational factors are important in understanding it. Research demonstrates the connection between job satisfaction and employees' turnover intentions and behaviors, and the mutual influence of these two concepts. High workloads increase turnover intentions among remaining employees when others leave (Eroğlu, 2020). There is a negative relationship between high levels of job satisfaction and commitment to the organization and turnover intention (Çekmecelioğlu, 2006). 

Proactive individuals are characterized by their ability to undertake tasks independently without needing direction (Bolino et al., 2010). Proactive employees, capable of taking personal initiative and sustaining passion to improve their work environment, are open to new ideas and embrace change (Robbins and Judge, 2013; Fueller et al., 2012). When confronted with challenges, they concentrate on their own resources instead of external circumstances, embracing an attitude that prioritizes personal growth and achievement (Fuller et al., 2010).

Workload refers to an employee's personal perception of the difficulty and intensity of tasks assigned at work (Keser, 2006). It is one of the factors that affect employees' performance and intention to quit (Faiz, 2019).

This research recommends conducting a quantitative study using the convenience sampling method. The study proposes using the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale to measure job satisfaction among flight attendants, the Intention to Leave Scale to assess turnover intentions, the Workload Scale to evaluate workload, and the Proactive Personality Scale to assess proactive personality traits. This research will review existing literature and introduce a model to examine the interrelations between job satisfaction, workload, proactive personality, and cabin crew's intention to quit. We anticipate that the study's findings will deepen our understanding of the working environment, potentially leading to positive outcomes for both employees and businesses.

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Gence, Z., Ural, S.A., & Aksu, E. (2024). The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry. Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace, 1(1), 56-70.


Gence Z, Ural S A, Aksu E. The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry. Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace. 2024;1(1):56-70.


Gence, Z.; Ural, S.A.; Aksu, E. The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry. Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace, [Publisher Location], v. 1, n. 1, p. 56-70, 2024.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Gence, Zeynep, and Sümeyye Aleyna Ural and Elif Aksu. 2024. “The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry.” Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace 1, no. 1: 56-70.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Gence, Zeynep, and Sümeyye Aleyna Ural and Elif Aksu. The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry.” Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace 1, no. 1 (Jul. 2024): 56-70.

Harvard: Australian Style

Gence, Z & Ural, SA & Aksu, E 2024, 'The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry', Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 56-70, viewed 25 Jul. 2024,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Gence, Z. and Ural, S.A. and Aksu, E. (2024) ‘The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry’, Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace, 1(1), pp. 56-70. (25 Jul. 2024).


Gence, Zeynep, and Sümeyye Aleyna Ural and Elif Aksu. The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry.” Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace, vol. 1, no. 1, 2024, pp. 56-70. [Database Container],


Gence Z, Ural SA, Aksu E. The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry. Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace [Internet]. 25 Jul. 2024 [cited 25 Jul. 2024];1(1):56-70. Available from: doi: 10.26650/hfaa.2024.1470873


Gence, Zeynep - Ural, SümeyyeAleyna - Aksu, Elif. The Moderating Role of Workload and Proactive Personality on the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: A Research Model in the Aviation Industry”. Human Factors in Aviation and Aerospace 1/1 (Jul. 2024): 56-70.


Published Online14.06.2024


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