Research Article


DOI :10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130   IUP :10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130    Full Text (PDF)

The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey

Bekir Sami OğuztürkFerhat Özbay

This study aims to determine the impact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and green innovation on the renewable energy (RE) supply (RES) by taking panel heterogeneity and cross-section dependence into account. The dataset of this study covers a panel of BRICS countries (fragile five) and Turkey from 2000 to 2017. Based on the heterogeneity and cross-section dependency, the tests we have applied are the CIPS unit root test, Gengenbach, Urbain and Westerlund’s (2016) panel cointegration, Mean Group estimator (MG) and fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), and Panel Dumitrescu and Hurlin’s (2012) causality techniques. We have found in this study that the variables are cointegrated in the long term. The results show that the CO2 emission for the whole sample has a negative impact on RES. On a country basis, it shows that green innovation has a positive and robust relationship with RES in Brazil and Turkey. The impact of green innovation on RES does not have a statistically significant relationship in Russia, China, India, or South Africa. CO2 emission indicates a negative impact on RES in whole countries. While economic growth reduces RES in India, Turkey and South Africa, this effect is the opposite in Brazil and China. This study provides practical policy implications for policymakers and researchers studying in this field.


PDF View

References

  • Adedoyin, F. F., Gumede, M. I., Bekun, F. V., Etokakpan, M. U., & Balsalobre-lorente, D. (2020). Modelling coal rent, economic growth and CO2 emissions: Does regulatory quality matter in BRICS economies? Science of the Total Environment, 710, 136284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136284 google scholar
  • Afshar Jahanshahi, A., Al-Gamrh, B., & Gharleghi, B. (2020). Sustainable development in Iran post-sanctions: Embracing green innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises. Sustainable Develop-ment, 28(4), 781-790. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2028 google scholar
  • Afshar Jahanshahi, A., & Brem, A. (2020). Entrepreneurs in post-sanctions Iran: Innovation or imitation under conditions of perceived environmental uncertainty? Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 37(2), 531-551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10490-018-9618-4 google scholar
  • Akram, R., Tariq Majeed, M., Fareed, Z., Khalid, F., Ye, C., & Majeed, M. T. (2020). Asymmetric effects of energy efficiency and renewable energy on carbon emissions of BRICS economies: evidence from nonlinear panel autoregressive distributed lag model. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 18254-18268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08353-8 google scholar
  • Ali, S., Dogan, E., Chen, F., & Khan, Z. (2020). International trade and environmental performance in top ten-emitter countries: The role of eco-innovation and renewable energy consumption. Sustainable Deve-lopment, 29(2), 378-387. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2153 google scholar
  • Anser, M. K., Syed, Q. R., & Apergis, N. (2021). Does geopolitical risk escalate CO2 emissions? Eviden-ce from the BRICS countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11356-021-14032-z google scholar
  • Apergis, N., & Payne, J. E. (2014). Renewable energy, output, CO2 emissions, and fossil fuel prices in Cent-ral America: Evidence from a nonlinear panel smooth transition vector error correction model. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2014.01.003 google scholar
  • Asadi, S., OmSalameh Pourhashemi, S., Nilashi, M., Abdullah, R., Samad, S., Yadegaridehkordi, E., Aljo-jo, N., & Razali, N. S. (2020). Investigating influence of green innovation on sustainability performan-ce: A case on the Malaysian hotel industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 258, 120860. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120860 google scholar
  • Aziz, N., Mihardjo, L. W., Sharif, A., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2020). The role of tourism and renewable energy in testing the environmental Kuznets curve in the BRICS countries: fresh evidence from methods of mo-ments quantile regression. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(31), 39427-39441. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10011-y google scholar
  • Bağrıyanık, B. (2021). İhracat Çeşitliliği ve Ekonomik Büyümenin Karbon Emisyonu Üzerindeki Etkileri: BRİCS Ülkeleri Üzerine Bir Çalışma. Bilgi, 23(1), 30-52. google scholar
  • Bai, C., Feng, C., Yan, H., Yi, X., Chen, Z., & Wei, W. (2020b). Will income inequality influence the aba-tement effect of renewable energy technological innovation on carbon dioxide emissions? Journal of Environmental Management, 264, 110482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110482 google scholar
  • Banday, U. J., & Aneja, R. (2020). Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, economic growth and carbon emission in BRICS: Evidence from bootstrap panel causality. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 14(1), 248-260. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJESM-02-2019-0007 google scholar
  • Bilan, Y., Streimikiene, D., Vasylieva, T., Lyulyov, O., Pimonenko, T., & Pavlyk, A. (2019). Linking between renewable energy, CO2 emissions, and economic growth: Challenges for candidates and potential candi-dates for EU membership. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(6), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061528 google scholar
  • Bull, S. R. (2001). Renewable energy today and tomorrow. Proceedings of the IEEE, 89(8), 1216-1226. https://doi.org/10.1109/5.940290 google scholar
  • Cheng, Y., & Yao, X. (2021). Carbon intensity reduction assessment of renewable energy technology innova-tion in China: A panel data model with cross-section dependence and slope heterogeneity. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 135, 110157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.110157 google scholar
  • Chiu, C. L., & Chang, T. H. (2009). What proportion of renewable energy supplies is needed to initially mi-tigate CO2 emissions in OECD member countries? Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Vol. 13, Issues 6-7, pp. 1669-1674). Pergamon. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2008.09.026 google scholar
  • Çınar, S., & Yılmazer, M. (2015). Yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının belirleyicileri ve ekonomik büyüme ilişkisi: gelişmekte olan ülkeler örneği. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 30(1), 55-78. google scholar
  • Dağlı, İ., & Kösekahyaoğlu, P. L. (2021). Artifıcial intelligence and future technologies that will shape the next production revolution: A content analysis. Isparta Uygulamalı Bilimler Üniversitesi Uygulamalı Sosyal Bilimler ve Güzel Sanatlar Dergisi (SOSGÜZ), 3 (5), 1-13. google scholar
  • Danish, & Ulucak, R. (2020). How do environmental technologies affect green growth? Evidence from BRICS economies. Science of the Total Environment, 712, 136504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scito-tenv.2020.136504 google scholar
  • Dincer, I. (2000). Renewable energy and sustainable development: A crucial review. Renewable & Sustai-nable Energy Reviews, 4(2), 157-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-0321(99)00011-8 google scholar
  • Dogan, E., & Seker, F. (2016). Determinants of CO2 emissions in the European Union: The role of renewable and non-renewable energy. Renewable Energy, 94, 429-439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.03.078 google scholar
  • Dong, K., Hochman, G., Zhang, Y., Sun, R., Li, H., & Liao, H. (2018). CO2 emissions, economic and popula-tion growth, and renewable energy: Empirical evidence across regions. Energy Economics, 75, 180-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2018.08.017 google scholar
  • Dong, K., Sun, R., Jiang, H., & Zeng, X. (2018). CO2 emissions, economic growth, and the environmental Kuznets curve in China: What roles can nuclear energy and renewable energy play? Journal of Cleaner Production, 196, 51-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.271 google scholar
  • Dumitrescu, E. I., & Hurlin, C. (2012). Testing for Granger non-causality in heterogeneous panels. Economic Modelling, 29(4), 1450-1460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2012.02.014 google scholar
  • Gengenbach, C., Urbain, J. P., & Westerlund, J. (2016). Error Correction Testing in Panels with Common Stochastic Trends. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 31(6), 982-1004. https://doi.org/10.1002/jae.2475 google scholar
  • Hao, L. N., Umar, M., Khan, Z., & Ali, W. (2021). Green growth and low carbon emission in G7 countries: How critical is the network of environmental taxes, renewable energy and human capital? Science of the Total Environment, 752, 141853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141853 google scholar
  • Hashem Pesaran, M., & Yamagata, T. (2008). Testing slope homogeneity in large panels. Journal of Econo-metrics, 142(1), 50-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeconom.2007.05.010 google scholar
  • Hassan, S. T., Danish, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Awais Baloch, M., & Tarar, Z. H. (2020). Is nuclear energy a better alternative for mitigating CO2 emissions in BRICS countries? An empirical analysis. Nuclear En-gineering and Technology, 52(12), 2969-2974. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2020.05.016 google scholar
  • Hausman, J. A. (1978). Specification Tests in Econometrics. Econometrica, 46(6), 1251-1271. http://www. jstor.org/stable/1913827%5Cnhttp://www.jstor.org/%5Cnhttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?pub">http://www.jstor.org/%5Cnhttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?pub lisherCode=econosoc.%5Cnhttp://www.jstor.org google scholar
  • Inglesi-Lotz, R., & Dogan, E. (2018). The role of renewable versus non-renewable energy to the level of CO2 emissions: A panel analysis of sub-Saharan Africa’s Big 10 electricity generators. Renewable Energy, 123, 36-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.02.041 google scholar
  • IRENA (2021). Tracking the impacts of innovation: Offshore wind as a case study. International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi. google scholar
  • https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/public-licenses#cc-by (Accessed on 08 June 2021) google scholar
  • IEA (2019). http://energyatlas.iea.org/#!/tellmap/1378539487 (Accessed on 20 July 2021) google scholar
  • İzgi, B. B. (2017). BRICS ve MIST ülkelerinde yenilenebilir ve yenilenemeyen enerji tüketiminin ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki etkileri. ASSAM, 4(9), 14-22. google scholar
  • Kesgingöz, H., & Karamelikli, H. (2015). Dış ticaret-enerji tüketimi ve ekonomik büyümenin Co2 emisyonu üzerine etkisi. Kastamonu Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 9, 7-17. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/309319 google scholar
  • Khan, Z., Ali, S., Umar, M., Kirikkaleli, D., & Jiao, Z. (2020). Consumption-based carbon emissions and International trade in G7 countries: The role of Environmental innovation and Renewable energy. Science of the Total Environment, 730, 138945. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138945 google scholar
  • Khattak, S. I., Ahmad, M., Khan, Z. U., & Khan, A. (2020). Exploring the impact of innovation, renewable energy consumption, and income on CO2 emissions: new evidence from the BRICS economies. Envi-ronmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(12). 13866-13881. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07876-4 google scholar
  • Kılınç, E. C., & Şahbaz, N. (2021). Ar-Ge ve inovasyonun yenilenebilir enerji üretimi üzerindeki etkisi: Panel veri analizi. Alanya Akademik Bakış, 5(2), 1087-1105. https://doi.org/10.29023/alanyaakademik.867232 google scholar
  • Kongbuamai, N., Bui, Q., & Nimsai, S. (2021). The effects of renewable and nonrenewable energy con-sumption on the ecological footprint: the role of environmental policy in BRICS countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(22), 27885-27899. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12551-3 google scholar
  • Lin, B., & Zhu, J. (2019a). The role of renewable energy technological innovation on climate change: Empi-rical evidence from China. Science of the Total Environment, 659, 1505-1512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. scitotenv.2018.12.449 google scholar
  • Lin, B., & Zhu, J. (2019b). Determinants of renewable energy technological innovation in China under CO2 emissions constraint. Journal of Environmental Management, 247. 662-671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jenvman.2019.06.121 google scholar
  • Maddala, G. S., & Wu, S. (1999). A comparative study of unit root tests with panel data and a new simple test. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 61(SUPPL.), 631-652. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0084.0610s1631 google scholar
  • Muhammad, B., Khan, M. K., Khan, M. I., & Khan, S. (2021). Impact of foreign direct investment, natural resources, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth on environmental degradation: evidence from BRICS, developing, developed and global countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Rese-arch, 28(17), 21789-21798. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12084-1 google scholar
  • Nathaniel, S. P., & Iheonu, C. O. (2019). Carbon dioxide abatement in Africa: The role of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption. Science of the Total Environment, 679, 337-345. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.011 google scholar
  • Nathaniel, S. P., Yalçiner, K., & Bekun, F. V. (2021). Assessing the environmental sustainability corridor: Linking natural resources, renewable energy, human capital, and ecological footprint in BRICS. Resour-ces Policy, 70, 101924. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2020.101924 google scholar
  • OECD. (2020). Environment at a Glance Indicators. In Environment at a Glance Indicators. https://doi. org/10.1787/ac4b8b89-en google scholar
  • OECD (2021), Renewable energy (indicator). doi: 10.1787/aac7c3f1-en (Accessed on 08 June 2021) google scholar
  • Omri, A., & Nguyen, D. K. (2014). On the determinants of renewable energy consumption: International evidence. Energy, 72, 554-560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.05.081 google scholar
  • Özbay, F., & Oğuztürk, B. (2020). Panel veri modellerinde sapmalara karşı alternatif yaklaşımlar: Statik ve dinamik panel veri modelleri üzerine bir inceleme. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimlerde Teori ve Araştırmalar II (pp. 373-392). Ankara: Gece Kitaplığı. google scholar
  • Özbay, F., & Pehlivan, C. (2021). Relationship between the use of renewable energy, carbon dioxide emissi-on, and economic growth. S. Yüksel & H. Dinçer (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Strategic Management for CurrentEnergy Investments (pp. 339-355). https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-7998-8335-7.ch020 google scholar
  • Özşahin, Ş., Mucuk, M., & Gerçeker, M. (2016). Yenilenebilir enerji ve ekonomik büyüme arasındaki ilişki: BRICS -T ülkeleri üzerine panel ARDL analizi. Siyaset, Ekonomi ve Yönetim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(4), 111-130. google scholar
  • Panwar, N. L., Kaushik, S. C., & Kothari, S. (2011). Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review. In Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Vol. 15, Issue 3, pp. 1513-1524). Pergamon. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.037 google scholar
  • Pata, U. K., & Yurtkuran, S. (2018). Yenilenebilir enerji tüketimi, nüfus yoğunluğu ve finansal gelişmenin Co2 salımına etkisi: Türkiye örneği. Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari İncelemeler Dergisi, 30-38. https://doi. org/10.18092/ulikidince.441173 google scholar
  • Pedroni, P. (2000a). Fully modified ols for heterogeneous cointegrated panels. In nonstationary panels, panels cointegration, and dynamic panels, 15, 93-130. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b6b4/fe66e-3344b173e4cd91c9ec768296c2e4fbf.pdf google scholar
  • Pedroni, P. (2000b). Fully modified OLS for heterogeneous cointegrated panels. Advances in Econometrics, 15, 93-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0731-9053(00)15004-2 google scholar
  • Pesaran, M. H. (2004). General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels. google scholar
  • Pesaran, M. H. (2007). A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 22(2), 265-312. https://doi.org/10.1002/jae.951 google scholar
  • Pesaran, M. H. (2015). Testing weak cross-sectional sependence in large panels. Econometric Reviews, 34(10), 1089-1117. https://doi.org/10.1080/07474938.2014.956623 google scholar
  • Pesaran, M. H., & Smith, R. (1995). Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels. Journal ofEconometrics, 68(1), 79-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4076(94)01644-F google scholar
  • Sadorsky, P. (2009). Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries. Energy Economics, 31(3), 456-462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2008.12.010 google scholar
  • Santra, S. (2017). The effect of technological innovation on production-based energy and CO2 emission productivity: Evidence from BRICS countries. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 9(5), 503-512. https://doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2017.1308069 google scholar
  • Saudi, M. H. M., Sinaga, O., & Jabarullah, N. H. (2019). The role of renewable, non-renewable energy con-sumption and technology innovation in testing environmental Kuznets curve in Malaysia. International Journal ofEnergy Economics and Policy, 9(1), 299-307. https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.7327 google scholar
  • Şengönül, A. (2018). Elektrik tüketimi ve ekonomik büyüme arasındaki ilişki: BRICS ülkeleri için bir uygulama. C.Ü. İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 19(2), 431-447. google scholar
  • Shafiei, S., & Salim, R. A. (2014). Non-renewable and renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD countries: A comparative analysis. Energy Policy, 66, 547-556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.en-pol.2013.10.064 google scholar
  • Song, M., Fisher, R., & Kwoh, Y. (2019). Technological challenges of green innovation and sustainable reso-urce management with large scale data. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 144(7), 361-368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.07.055 google scholar
  • Swamy, P. A. V. B. (1971). Statistical Inference in Random Coefficient Regression Models. Springer-Verlag. google scholar
  • Tatoğlu, F. Y. (2018). Panel zaman serileri analizi (2nd ed.). https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=it&as_sd t=0,5&cluster=14420097373833661095 google scholar
  • Waheed, R., Chang, D., Sarwar, S., & Chen, W. (2018). Forest, agriculture, renewable energy, and CO2 emission. Journal of CleanerProduction, 172, 4231-4238. https://doi.org/10.1016/jjdepro.2017.10.287 google scholar
  • Yang, F., Cheng, Y., & Yao, X. (2019). Influencing factors of energy technical innovation in China: Evi-dence from fossil energy and renewable energy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 232, 57-66. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.270 google scholar
  • Younis, I., Naz, A., Shah, S. A. A., Nadeem, M., & Longsheng, C. (2021). Impact of stock market, renewable energy consumption and urbanization on environmental degradation: new evidence from BRICS count-ries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12731-1 google scholar
  • Zhao, W., Zhong, R., Sohail, S., Majeed, M. T., & Ullah, S. (2021). Geopolitical risks, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in BRICS: an asymmetric analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13505-5 google scholar
  • Zhu, Y., Wang, Z., Yang, J., & Zhu, L. (2020). Does renewable energy technological innovation cont-rol China’s air pollution? A spatial analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 250, 119515. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119515 google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Oğuztürk, B.S., & Özbay, F. (2022). The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey. Istanbul Business Research, 51(1), 237-256. https://doi.org/10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130


AMA

Oğuztürk B S, Özbay F. The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey. Istanbul Business Research. 2022;51(1):237-256. https://doi.org/10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130


ABNT

Oğuztürk, B.S.; Özbay, F. The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey. Istanbul Business Research, [Publisher Location], v. 51, n. 1, p. 237-256, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Oğuztürk, Bekir Sami, and Ferhat Özbay. 2022. “The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey.” Istanbul Business Research 51, no. 1: 237-256. https://doi.org/10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130


Chicago: Humanities Style

Oğuztürk, Bekir Sami, and Ferhat Özbay. The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey.” Istanbul Business Research 51, no. 1 (Feb. 2023): 237-256. https://doi.org/10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130


Harvard: Australian Style

Oğuztürk, BS & Özbay, F 2022, 'The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey', Istanbul Business Research, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 237-256, viewed 1 Feb. 2023, https://doi.org/10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Oğuztürk, B.S. and Özbay, F. (2022) ‘The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey’, Istanbul Business Research, 51(1), pp. 237-256. https://doi.org/10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130 (1 Feb. 2023).


MLA

Oğuztürk, Bekir Sami, and Ferhat Özbay. The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey.” Istanbul Business Research, vol. 51, no. 1, 2022, pp. 237-256. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130


Vancouver

Oğuztürk BS, Özbay F. The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey. Istanbul Business Research [Internet]. 1 Feb. 2023 [cited 1 Feb. 2023];51(1):237-256. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130 doi: 10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130


ISNAD

Oğuztürk, BekirSami - Özbay, Ferhat. The Relationship between Green Innovation, CO2 Emissions, Gross Domestic Product, and Renewable Energy Supply: A Panel Data Analysis for BRICS Countries and Turkey”. Istanbul Business Research 51/1 (Feb. 2023): 237-256. https://doi.org/10.26650/ibr.2022.51.969130



TIMELINE


Submitted09.07.2021
Accepted01.11.2021
Published Online01.03.2022

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.