Relationship Between Social Capital and Unemployment Anxiety: An Application on Last Class Students at Ataturk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative SciencesAhmet Güney, Elif Çelik
Unemployment is one of the most important socio-economic problems waiting to be solved in Turkey as in most countries. It is known that unemployment creates economic, psychological and social effects on individuals. One of the most important impacts of unemployment on individuals is unemployment anxiety. Unemployment has a significant place in desperation of future and anxiety of unemployment of individuals aged 15-24. It is thought that membership of an NonGovernmental Organizations, social support from the environmental and social capital will reduce the unemployment anxiety on individuals. In this study, it has been analyzed whether there is a significant relationship between the social capitals and unemployment concerns of university senior students or not. In the study which was applied on the senior students of Atatürk University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, the existence of the relationship between these two variables was revealed by correlation analysis. The analysis was performed on the responses received from 155 participants who were found to be eligible for the study. As a result of the study, it is showed that there is a negative relationship between social capital and unemployment anxiety, furthermore individuals with high social capital levels decrease their unemployment anxiety. In terms of gender; the level unemployment concerns were higher among women, while in males, the level of social capital was higher. It was concluded that increasing social capital levels of individuals would reduce unemployment concerns and would look more hopeful to the future in this direction.
Sosyal Sermaye İle İşsizlik Kaygısı Arasındaki İlişki: Atatürk Üniversitesi İİBF Son Sınıf Öğrencileri Üzerine Bir UygulamaAhmet Güney, Elif Çelik
Çoğu ülkelerde olduğu gibi Türkiye’de de çözüme kavuşturulmayı bekleyen en önemli sosyo-ekonomik sorunların başında işsizlik yer almaktadır. İşsizliğin bireyler üzerinde birtakım ekonomik, psikolojik ve sosyal etkiler yarattığı bilinmektedir. İşsizliğin bireyler üzerinde yarattığı en önemli etkilerden biri de işsizlik kaygısıdır. 15-24 yaş aralığında yer alan bireylerin gelecekleriyle ilgili ümitsizliğe kapılmalarında ve işsizlik kaygısı yaşamalarında işsizlik önemli bir paya sahiptir. STK’ya üyeliğin, çevreden sağlanan sosyal desteklerin ve sosyal sermayenin bireyler üzerindeki işsizlik kaygısını azaltacağı düşünülmektedir. Bu düşünce doğrultusunda yapılan bu araştırmada; üniversite son sınıf öğrencilerinin sosyal sermayeleriyle işsizlik kaygıları arasında anlamlı bir ilişkinin olup olmadığı analiz edilmiştir. Atatürk Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi son sınıf öğrencileri üzerinde uygulanmış olan bu çalışmada, bu iki değişken arasındaki ilişkinin varlığı korelasyon analizi ile ortaya konulmuştur. Çalışmaya katılan ve uygun bulunan 155 katılımcıdan alınan cevaplar üzerinden analiz gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucunda sosyal sermaye ile işsizlik kaygısı arasında negatif yönlü bir ilişki olduğu ve sosyal sermaye düzeyleri yüksek olan bireylerin işsizlik kaygılarının azalacağı tespit edilmiştir. Cinsiyete göre; kadınlarda işsizlik kaygısı erkeklerde ise sosyal sermaye düzeyi daha yüksek çıkmıştır. Sosyal sermaye düzeyleri yükseldiğinde öğrencilerin işsizlik kaygılarının azalacağı ve bu yönde geleceğe daha ümitli bakacakları sonucuna varılmıştır.
In the historical process, the concept of social capital has been the subject of a variety of research in fields such as economics, sociology, business administration and political sciences. Social capital, which has become increasingly important in social structure and it has been used frequently in literature, trust, social networks and norms which consist a structure that support each other. The social capital required inside of social structure varies according to the level of development levels of the countries. The existence of these differences paves the way for the weakening of social networks and decreasing trust in society.
Another factor that is important for humanity and which takes its place in literature in this direction is anxiety. Anxiety is defined as the tension and fear that individuals feel instinctively against a threat. There are many economic, social and psychological reasons that cause individuals to be anxious during their lives, and they have an impact on despair. The main reason for this is the unemployment phenomenon related to the future of individuals. The overall unemployment rate for our country is 10,8% and the youth unemployment rate is 22%. This situation,shows that the most effected group by unemployment are the young individuals in the rage 15-24.
The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a meaningful relationship between the social capital of the senior students and the unemployment concerns or not. In this context, the research sample includes senior students in the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences of Erzurum Atatürk University. In this study it is preferred data collection method based on quantitative data. The existence of the relationship between these two variables is tried to be revealed by correlation analysis. SPSS 22 statistical program was used to analyze the data. As a result of the study, a negative relationship was found between social capital and unemployment anxiety As the social capital of individuals increased, unemployment concerns decreased. In this respect, it can be interpreted that as the social capital of the students increases, the unemployment concerns related to their future will decrease in the opposite direction. According to the hypothesis results, there is a higher relation between social capital and unemployment anxiety sub-dimensions, personal pessimism and lack of self-confidence compared to other sub-dimensions. It can be said that a significant relationship was found between social capital and the lower dimensions of unemployment anxiety. As a matter of fact, as the social capital of students increases, there will be a decrease in personal pessimism and lack of self-confidence, and there will be decreases in social pressures and effects of their environment.
When the relationship between the sub-dimensions of social capital and unemployment anxiety is examined; It has been noted that the relationship between the value of life, which is one of the sub-dimensions of social capital, and unemployment anxiety has a higher rate than other sub-dimensions. As a result, any increase in the sub-dimensions of social capital reduces the unemployment concerns of individuals and it enables individuals to be hopefull about the their future.
As a result of the differences analysis performed, social capital and unemployment anxiety levels differed according to the demographic characteristics of the students. It was observed that women’s perception of unemployment anxiety was higher than that of men. It can be said that the fact that women cannot find a working area in every sector in the labor market is effective in having unemployment anxiety about their future. As a result of the analyzes, it has been observed that the unemployment anxiety of the students who have work experience have a lower rate compared to the students who cannot have work experience. It was revealed that men’s perceptions of social capital were higher than women. It was observed that the individuals who had relatives in the job-finding point had higher rates of social capital perceptions than those who had no relatives in terms of employment. Unemployment concerns of the young people with high social capital have been low and an opposite relationship has been found between these two variables.