Review Article

DOI :10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2023.1033045   IUP :10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2023.1033045    Full Text (PDF)

Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis

Zafer ŞahinPınar Sinem Omurtağ ÖzgenSevim Rollas

Phase I and Phase II metabolic reactions are involved in the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs after administration. These reactions mainly aim to make drugs more polar and eliminate them safely. However, some of these metabolites have the potential to exhibit a toxicological effect. Industry and/or academia have to consider these metabolites in terms of their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. These metabolites are not only residual intermediates from the synthetic process of the main drug but also unique structures produced by metabolic enzymes in the human organism. Thus, metabolite synthesis by synthetic or semi-synthetic methods is a key feature in the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, synthetic methods of the metabolites from all known metabolic pathways are reviewed from the literature. It was observed that both synthetic and semi-synthetic methods require more attention as they are as important and complex as drug synthesis. Moreover, it showed that there was much more research available for Phase I than Phase II in the literature.

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Şahin, Z., Omurtağ Özgen, P., & Rollas, S. (2023). Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, 53(2), 251-269.


Şahin Z, Omurtağ Özgen P, Rollas S. Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy. 2023;53(2):251-269.


Şahin, Z.; Omurtağ Özgen, P.; Rollas, S. Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, [Publisher Location], v. 53, n. 2, p. 251-269, 2023.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Şahin, Zafer, and Pınar Sinem Omurtağ Özgen and Sevim Rollas. 2023. “Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis.” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 53, no. 2: 251-269.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Şahin, Zafer, and Pınar Sinem Omurtağ Özgen and Sevim Rollas. Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis.” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 53, no. 2 (Jul. 2024): 251-269.

Harvard: Australian Style

Şahin, Z & Omurtağ Özgen, P & Rollas, S 2023, 'Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis', İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 251-269, viewed 24 Jul. 2024,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Şahin, Z. and Omurtağ Özgen, P. and Rollas, S. (2023) ‘Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis’, İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, 53(2), pp. 251-269. (24 Jul. 2024).


Şahin, Zafer, and Pınar Sinem Omurtağ Özgen and Sevim Rollas. Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis.” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 53, no. 2, 2023, pp. 251-269. [Database Container],


Şahin Z, Omurtağ Özgen P, Rollas S. Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy [Internet]. 24 Jul. 2024 [cited 24 Jul. 2024];53(2):251-269. Available from: doi: 10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2023.1033045


Şahin, Zafer - Omurtağ Özgen, Pınar Sinem - Rollas, Sevim. Importance and review of drug metabolite synthesis”. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 53/2 (Jul. 2024): 251-269.


Published Online28.08.2023


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