Protective effects of Brenania brieyi (De Wild) E.M.A.Petit root bark fractions against inflammatory-mediated hemolysis and dyslipidemia in ratsIfeoma Felicia Chukwuma, Victor Onukwube Apeh, Florence Nkechi Nworah, Felix Ifeanyi Nwafor, Lawrence Uchenna Sunday Ezeanyika, Victor Nwadiogo Ogugua
Background and Aims: The inflammatory response, though protective, is the major cause of debilitating diseases when provoked excessively or if left unresolved. Brenania brieyi (De Wild) E.M.A.Petit is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory-related diseases. This study investigated the protective effects of methanol and chloroform root bark fractions of Brenania brieyi on inflammation-induced hemolysis and dyslipidemia. Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by inserting 20 mg of autoclaved cotton pellets into forty-five rats randomly distributed into nine groups (n=5), this excluded group 1 (baseline). The extent of hemolysis and dyslipidemia in the inflamed rats was ascertained from hematological parameters, lipid profile, and lipidemic index, while the possible underlying mechanisms of inflammation were determined using standard procedures. Results: Treatment with varying doses of the root bark fractions of B. brieyi elicited a significant (p< 0.05) decrease in granuloma tissue and an increase (p<0.05) in hemoglobin, red and white blood cell count, packed cell volume, and platelets compared with the untreated group 2. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and low-density lipoprotein, and a non-significant (p>0.05) increase in high-density lipoprotein were observed in almost all the test groups compared with group 2. There was a significant restoration of atherogenic and dyslipidemia indices and inhibition of acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, membrane hemolysis, and platelet aggregation in the fraction-treated groups compared with the control. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that B. brieyi inhibits exudation and proliferation of granuloma-forming cells and also has the potential to restore the hematological parameters and lipid anomalies to their physiologic state under chronic inflammation. The possible mechanisms of its action could be inhibition of vascular permeability, stabilization of the membrane, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. This justifies the use of the plant in traditional medicine and also demonstrates its potential as a target for the discovery of new anti-inflammatory agents.