The formulation and characterization of water-soluble snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) dry extract in nanoemulsion using permeation and in vivo studyRobert Tungadi, Widysusanti Abdulkadir, Munafri Tahir
Background and Aims: The study was conducted to determine the optimal concentration of water-soluble snakehead fish dry extract (SFDE) in nanoemulsion and the amount of albumin required to penetrate the skin in order to accelerate the wound healing process. Methods: The snakehead fish (SF) was extracted using an atomizer while the nanoemulsion basis was optimized using oleic acid, Tween 80, and propylene glycol. The developed SFDE in nanoemulsion was characterized based on droplet size, PDI, and zeta potential. The ability of the mixture to penetrate the snakeskin was tested using Franz diffusion cells. The effectiveness of the nanoemulsion was evaluated by dividing the rabbits used for experiment into 6 treatment groups including SFDE F1 0.25%, F2 0.5%, F3 1%, F4 SF 2% cream, F5 nanoemulsion basis, and F6 no treatment. Results: The SFDE nanoemulsion produced a particle size of 147.5 nm with acceptable PDI (0.23) and zeta potential (+13.38 mV). The most effective SFDE to accelerate the healing of open wounds in rabbits was a concentration of 1%, which was found to have dried and closed the wound on the 3rd day. Conclusion: The permeation study and the effectiveness test showed the 1% SFDE nanoemulsion is the best concentration in accelerating the wound healing process and ensuring the highest albumin penetration into the skin.