According to Bukhari Is "Destiny"Condition of faith? An Analysis in the Context of "Jibril’s HadithNour Alhila
Belief in destiny is counted among the conditions of belief in the creed books of Ahl Al-Sunnah. The basis of this belief is the phrase "believing in destiny" in the hadith, known as Jibril’s hadith in reply to the prophet Muhammad PBUH, stating that Iman/belief in destiny is out of Iman. Yet imam Bukhari did not relate to any hadith stating the phrase “belief in destiny” in his Sahih. In addition, the Bukhari related to the phrase “belief in destiny” in one of his works named "Halku Efali'l-Ibad", in which he dealt with the subject of destiny separately, made it necessary to examine his opinion on destiny. This research aims to examine the reasons that led Imam bukhari not to relate to the hadiths that stated “belief in destiny” phrases, beside highlighting his own belief in believing in destiny under the mentioned Jibril’s Hadith.
هل اإليمان بالقدر من مسائل اإليمان عند اإلمام البخاري؟ دراسة من خالل حديث جبريلNour Alhila
يعد اإليمان بالقدر من أركان أو شروط اإليمان في كتب العقائد عند أهل السنة، وحديث جبريل من أهم األحاديث التي استندوا عليها، في جواب النبي صلى هللا كبير َّ من المصادر التي خرجتها، إال أن اإلمام البخاري في صحيحه لم يخرج أي حديث ٍ ٍ عليه وسلم أن اإليمان بالقدر من اإليمان، وهذه اللفظة واردة في جمع يشتمل على لفظ اإليمان بالقدر. وإلى جانب ذلك فقد كان من الضروري تناول إخراج البخاري للفظة "اإليمان بالقدر" في مصنفه "خلق أفعال العباد"، والذي ٍ أفرده لمسألة القدر التي برزت في عصره، في محاولة للوقوف على رأيه في هذه المسألة. فيهدف هذا البحث إلى محاولة الكشف عن علة اإلمام البخاري في عدم تخريج األحاديث المشتملة على لفظ اإليمان بالقدر، إلى جانب بيان عقيدته في اإليمان بالقدر في ظل حديث جبريل.
Buhârî’ye Göre “Kader” İmanın Şartlarından mıdır? “Cibril Hadisi” Bağlamında Bir İncelemeNour Alhila
Kadere iman Ehl-i sünnetin akaid kitaplarında imanın şartları arasında sayılır. Bu inancın dayanağı ise Cibril hadisi olarak bilinen iman ve İslam’ın şartlarının sayıldığı hadisteki “kadere inanmandır” ibaresidir. Hemen hemen bütün hadis kaynaklarında tahric edilen bu hadisin Buhari versiyonunda söz konusu ibare bulunmamaktadır. Buhari’nin kader konusunu müstakil olarak ele aldığı ‘Halku Efali’l-İbad’ adlı eserinde de bu anlama gelebilecek bir ifadenin geçmemesi onun kader konusundaki görüşünü incelemeyi gerekli kılmıştır. Bu araştırma hem Cibril hadisi’ni “kadere iman” ifadesi açasından incelemeyi hem de Buhari’nin kader anlayışını ortaya koymayı hedeflemektedir.
Jibril’s Hadith is a well-known hadith in teaching Islam, with faith at its head. However, Bukhari did not derive the hadith from the way in which the word of belief in predestination appeared in both places that he discussed in his Sahih. Rather, he derived from the hadith of Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, from the ways in which the phrase “belief in predestination” was not proven. He stated that the reason for Ibn Omar’s famous narration of the hadith was to respond to those who denied predestination in his time. His narration became the most famous interpretation and was widely adopted in commentaries.
Predestination is an important theological point on which various classifications were established. Discussions revolved around the concept, while differences involving different sects were eventually woven around it. Muslim scholars responded to and affirmed these discussions, and belief in predestination became one of the pillars of faith in all sects of Islam, according to later scholars.
None of the scholars, however, explained why Bukhari did not include this narration in his Sahih by explaining the reasons calling for that, especially since the Qadariyah sect had a strong voice in favor of a doctrine of free will in the time of Imam Bukhari. Finally, Bukhari wrote a book in response to the free-will advocating Qadariyah sect and its beliefs, although some contemporaries considered Bukhari not to have disproved it. The scholars challenged his method as an ineffective way of questioning Jibril’s Hadith. Some scholars responded to this criticism by weakening the position of Bukhari’s work, describing it as an incomplete narration.
This analysis leads us to certain questions that require answers, as follows:
Why did Bukhari prefer in his Sahih to extract the narration of Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, over the narration of Ibn Omar, which includes the word “faith in predestination” and mentions a supporting reason for this inclusion, thereby distancing the delusion from its narrator. Why did Bukhari prefer the methods of Abu Hurairah’s hadith that are free of the word “faith” as the basis on which it was to be proven? Was the word “faith in predestination” proven in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah? Is the narration adopted by Bukhari in his Sahih incomplete and weak as Bakr Tatali notes in his study?
Is faith in predestination mentioned in the other Sahih collections, such as the Book of Predestination, which Bukhari created for examining this issue, or the Book of Unity? Also, did Bukhari reveal in his independent work Creating the Actions of the People that the word “faith in predestination” was the underlying reason for his composition? Was this the reason the issue of predestination erupted in the era of Bukhari? Further, did Bukhari see fate as an independent issue of belief or as a pillar of faith in the event that faith was one of the chapters of belief? Note that the hadith of Omar states in it: “You believe in predestination.” Was Bukhari not seeing it as an issue of faith? This difference is especially pertinent because the issue of fate during the period of the emergence of the Qadariyah sect occupied such a large area of theological discussion. That is, it did so until Bukhari wrote his works responding to it.
This research aims to reveal Imam Bukhari’s reason for not extracting the hadiths that contain the word “faith in predestination,” as well as explaining his belief in predestination in the light of Jibril’s Hadith, by answering the questions above.
The author’s research for this paper demonstrated that what is established from the narration of Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, is that Bukhari did not actually use the term belief in predestination. The chains of transmission of the narrations that Bukhari did not derive previously, such as the hadith of Omar as indicated by Ibn Hajar, were themselves not free from defects, problems, and criticism that distanced them from the condition of Bukhari in his Sahih. Bukhari’s action in not following the paths of the narration of Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, in which the phrase “belief in predestination” was not proven, is an indication that this wording is likely not to be proven from the hadith of Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him.
This study also showed that Bukhari maintained the established wording of the companion even when he narrated from his path and did not include any extraneous words, even if it was selected from the narrations of the other companions in the hadith.
This author concludes that Bukhari believed that predestination is an independent issue of belief because of his contention that belief in predestination is an issue of faith that cannot be confirmed. Bukhari did not refer in his Sahih to the word “belief in predestination” in the chapters or the suspensions, or even in the follow-ups, which is preferred when a word is proven by a path that is not ordinarily on its condition, and in the case of the presence of the hadith and its chain of transmission. He did cite the narration that includes the word “faith in predestination” from the narrations of Abu Hurairah and Abu Dhar outside of the Sahih, in his book Creating the Actions of the People, which is based on this issue, and as al-Lalka’i called it, is viewed as “the response to Qadariyah sect.” However, Bukhari’s consideration of this particular narration was in the context of proving the naming of Islam and faith as actions. The wording of Ibn Omar’s narration from Omar were not sufficiently derived to allow one to stand on them. Bukhari also created a complete book in his collection that he called the “Book of Predestination.” Although he did not narrate Jibril’s Hadith in this book, he nonetheless narrates other hadiths that do affirm predestination, not just a belief in predestination.