Research Article


DOI :10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249   IUP :10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249    Full Text (PDF)

The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā

Bünyamin Aydın

Ibn Hishām stated that iʻrāb must be done by considering the meaning and as required by the meaning, otherwise wrong results will be achieved. Tammām Hassān expressed this situation as grammatical analysis based on meaning which necessarily requires considering the context. Accordingly, the context, with its internal and external elements, can determine not only the lexical meaning of the word, but also its functional meaning. From the interpreter’s point of view, the effects of contextual elements on grammatical analysis can be seen in the following ways: by not analyzing unknown words, by listing the possibilities in meaningful words or by making a choice based on contextual factors. After explaining some basic concepts of meaning and iʻrāb, this study will discuss how iʻrāb is dependent on meaning at the levels of lexical and contextual meaning. In this sense the study will research aspects on which the grammatical analyses of the preposition mā in the sixth verse of Sūrah Yāsīn are based, reveal the linguistic, epistemological and theological foundations on which the grammatical analysis is based, chronologically review the grammatical comments and evaluate the dimensions of the relationship between meaning and iʻrāb as part of the concept of tawaqquf.

DOI :10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249   IUP :10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249    Full Text (PDF)

Gramatik Çözümlemede Tevakkuf Kavramı Üzerine -İbn Hişâm’ın “Mürâʻâtu’l-Maʻnâ” Değerlendirmesi Bağlamında-

Bünyamin Aydın

İbn Hişâm (ö. 761/1360) iʻrâbın mana gözetilerek ve anlamın gerektirdiği şekilde yapılması gerektiğini, aksi takdirde yanlış sonuçlara ulaşılacağını belirtir. Temmâm Hassân (1918-2011) bu durumu gramatik çözümlemenin anlama tevakkuf etmesi şeklinde ifade etmiştir. İʻrâbın manaya tevakkuf etmesi zorunlu olarak bağlamı göz önünde bulundurmayı gerektirmektedir. Buna göre iç ve dış unsurlarıyla bağlam, kelimenin sözlüksel anlamı üzerinde belirleyici olabildiği gibi iʻrâbını da tayin edebilmektedir. Yorumcu açısından bakıldığında bağlamsal unsurların gramatik çözümleme üzerindeki belirleyiciliği; temel olarak anlamı bilinmeyen kelimeleri iʻrâb etmeme, anlamı bilinen kelimelerde ise muhtemel vecihleri sıralayıp bırakma ya da bağlamsal unsurlar üzerinden bir tercihte bulunma şeklinde tezahür etmektedir. Çalışmada iʻrâb ve anlama ilişkin temel kavramlar açıklandıktan sonra iʻrâbın manaya tevakkufu olgusu sözlüksel anlam ve bağlamsal anlam düzeylerinde ele alınacaktır. Bu bağlamda Yâsîn Suresi altıncı ayetteki mâ kelimesine ilişkin gramatik çözümlemelerin hangi hususlar üzerinden temellendirildiği araştırılacak; tercihin dayandığı dilbilimsel, epistemolojik, itikadî temeller ortaya konularak yorumlar kronolojik bir biçimde incelemeye tabi tutulacak ve anlam iʻrâb ilişkisinin boyutları tevakkuf kavramı çerçevesinde değerlendirilecektir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Ibn Hishām stated that iʻrāb must be done by considering the meaning and as required by the meaning, otherwise wrong results will be achieved. Tammām Hassān expressed this situation as grammatical analysis based on meaning which necessarily requires consideration of context. Accordingly, context, has internal and external elements and can determine not only the lexical meaning of the word, but also its functional meaning. From the interpreter’s point of view, the effects of contextual elements on grammatical analysis can be seen in the following ways: by not analyzing unknown words, by listing the possibilities in meaningful words or by making a choice based on contextual factors. This study will discuss how iʻrāb is based on meaning at the levels of lexical and contextual meaning after explaining some basic concepts of meaning and iʻrāb. In this sense the study will research the aspects on which the grammatical analyses of the preposition mā in the sixth verse of Sūrah Yāsīn are based, reveal the linguistic, epistemological and theological foundations on which the grammatical analysis is based, chronologically review the grammatical comments and evaluate the dimensions of the relationship between meaning and iʻrāb within the framework of the concept of tawaqquf.

Tawaqquf is a general term that means the dependence of one thing’s existence on another. Tawaqquf in grammatical analysis refers to the dependence iʻrāb has on meaning. As a result of this iʻrāb is impossible for sentences whose meaning is unknown, and one of the possible iʻrāb cases cannot be preferred using purely grammatical methods in sentences whose meaning is known. In such a case, the exegete can be content by listing the possible iʻrāb cases, by referring to other verses if the text of the Qur’an is in question or by referring to the contextual elements surrounding the text. The decisive factor in matters such as putting the possible iʻrāb cases in order of correctness and eliminating one of the possibilities or preferring one over the other is the context of linguistic expression. In some sentences, the context necessitates one iʻrāb case while other times may allow all cases equally. This situation is the appearance of polysemy at the syntactic level, which is one of the reasons leading to tawaqquf and referred to in the Arabic language as iltibās, ġumūd, labs, taʻaddud al-awjuh and ihtimālāt iʻrābiyyah. This language fact can occur due to reasons related to phonetic, morphological, syntactic and semantic aspects and is expressed through the concept of ambiguity in English. Ambiguity means: 1) having more than one semantic interpretation of syntax structure 2) the situation in which a linguistic form leads to two or more interpretations in the absence of correspondence between form and meaning and 3) having more than one syntactic structure of a sentence. In such ambiguity, the exegete has to refer to the linguistic and extra linguistic elements surrounding the expression. This shows the analysis to have an aspect that goes beyond grammatical boundaries the iʻrāb process to be one carried out based on the meaning, and the historical, epistemological and theological elements to be able to be determinant regarding the grammatical analysis. 

Ibn Hishām (d. 761/1360) focused on the relationship between iʻrāb and meaning in the section of his book Muġni’l-Lebīb titled “Possible Objections to the Exegete Regarding İʻrāb” and emphasized at the beginning of this section that iʻrāb should be done by considering meaning and as required by the meaning. According to Ibn Hishām, the exegete has to know the meaning of the expression upon which he wants to perform the iʻrāb at the word and sentence levels. Considering this necessity at the word level results in the inability to do iʻrāb for words that are included in the sentence construction but whose meanings are unknown. For example, some letters in the beginning of certain Sūrahs of Qur’an, have no iʻrāb. In addition, the meanings of all the words in a sentence should be determined in order for the iʻrāb process to take place. At the sentence level, wrong results are achieved if the iʻrāb is not done by considering the meaning and direction required by the meaning.

The necessity Ibn Hishām emphasized was expressed by Tammām Hassān (1918- 2011) as iʻrāb’s dependence on meaning. Tawaqquf can be said to apparently have three cases. One of these is that iʻrāb is impossible for words whose lexical meanings are unknown. Secondly, if the grammatical and semantic structures allow different iʻrāb cases in sentences consisting of words with known meanings, the context may necessitate one or the other of these cases. Thirdly, if no preferential reason exists, the exegete can remark on the possible cases one by one. This study will discuss these three cases within the concept of tawaqquf. Firstly by explaining the basic concepts of meaning and iʻrāb and then by revealing the appearing of tawaqquf at the lexical and contextual meaning levels. Afterward, the study will chronologically evaluate the analyses of the exegete regarding the word mā in the sixth verse of the Qur’an’s Sūrah Yāsīn.

As a linguistic fact, syntactic ambiguity is expressed with concepts such as labs, iltibās, ihtimālāt al-awjuh in Arabic and refer to situation where a syntactic structure permits open to more than one semantic interpretation, and this shows the sign of iʻrāb to not always be sufficient for distinguishing meanings. This also shows that in the case of mabnī or different iʻrāb positions being indicated by the same case endings, grammatical analysis can be carried out through meaning based on non-linguistic elements. This shows the need to consider meaning in iʻrāb to not be independent of the interpreter’s preferences, as emphasized by Ibn Hishām. 


PDF View

References

  • Kur’ân-ı Kerîm, Ahzâb 33/62. google scholar
  • Ahfeş el-Evsat, Ebu’l-Hasen Saîd b. Mes‘ade. Me ‘âm’l-Kur’ân. thk. Hüdâ Mahmûd. Kahire: Mektebetu’l-Hancî, 1990. google scholar
  • Ahmed Muhtâr Ömer. ‘İlmu’d-Dilâle. Kahire: Âlemu’l-Kutub, 1998. google scholar
  • Ahmed Süleyman Yâkût. Zâhiratu’l-İ‘râb fi’n-Nahvi’l-‘Arabî ve Tatbîkuhâ fi’l-Kur’âni’l-Kerîm. İskenderiye: Dâru’l-Ma‘rifeti’l-Câmiiyye, 1994. google scholar
  • A‘lem eş-Şentemerî. Tahsîlu Ayni’z-Zeheb min Ma‘dini Cevheri’l-Edeb fîMecâzâti’l-‘Arab. thk. Züheyr Abdulmuhsin. Beyrut: Muessesetu’r-Risâle, 1994. google scholar
  • Baalbaki, Ramzi Munir. ““Bab al-Fa’” [“Fa’” + Subjunctive] in Arabic Grammatical Sources”. Arabica 48/2 (2001), 186-209. google scholar
  • Baalbaki Ramzi Munir. Dictionary of Linguistic Terms. Beirut: Dar El-Ilm Lilmalayin, 1990. google scholar
  • Bâkellâ Muhammed Hasen vd. A Dictionary of Modern Linguistic Terms. Beirut: Librairie du Liban, 1983. google scholar
  • Bor, İbrahim. Dil Düşünce ve Anlam. Ankara: Elis Yayınları, 2014. google scholar
  • el-Cürcânî, Abdülkahir. Delâilu’l-Αcâz. thk. Mahmûd Muhammed Şakir. Kahire: el-Hey’etu’l-Mısriyyetu’l-Âmme, 2000. google scholar
  • Cürcânî, Abdülkahir. Delâilu’l-Αcâz Sözdizimi ve Anlambilim. çev. Osman Güman. İstanbul: Litera Yayıncılık, 2008. google scholar
  • Demir, Osman. “Tevakkuf”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi. 40/579. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 2011. google scholar
  • Desûkî, Muhammed b. Ahmed. Hâşiye ‘alâMuğni’l-Lebîb. Bulak: 1286. google scholar
  • Dîvânu Züheyr b. EbîSülmâ. thk. Ali Hasen Fâ‘ûr. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Kutubi’l-İlmiyye, 1988. google scholar
  • Dîvânu’l-A‘şâ. thk. M. Muhammed Hüseyin. Kahire: Mektebetu’l-Âdâb. google scholar
  • Divlekci, Celalettin. “Tefsirde Yorum Farklılığına Yol Açan Sebepler”. EKEV 18/58 (2014), 1-20. google scholar
  • Ebû Hayyân el-Endelüsî. el-Bahru’l-Muhît. thk. Âdil Ahmed Abdulmevcûd. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Kutubi’l-İlmiyye, 1993. google scholar
  • Ebu’l-Leys es-Semerkandî. Tefsîru’l-Kur’âni’l-Kerîm. thk. Ali Muhammed Muavvaz. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Kutubi’l-İlmiyye, 1993. google scholar
  • Enbârî, Ebû Bekr Muhammed. Kitâbu’l-Ezdâd. thk. Muhammed Ebu’l-Fazl İbrahim. Beyrut: el-Mektebetu’l-Asriyye, 1982. google scholar
  • Enbârî, Ebu’l-Berekât Kemâluddîn. el-BeyânfîGarîbiΑrâbi’l-Kur ’ân. thk. Tâhâ Abdulhamîd Tâhâ. Kahire: el-Hey’tu’l-Mısriyyetu’l-‘Amme, 1980. google scholar
  • Erdoğan, Mehmet. Fıkıh ve Hukuk Terimleri Sözlüğü. İstanbul: Ensar Yayınları, 2016. google scholar
  • Ezherî, Ebû Mansûr Muhammed b. Ahmed. Tehzîbu’l-Luga, thk. Abdusselâm Muhammed Hârûn. Kahire: ed-Dâru’l-Mısriyye, 1964. google scholar
  • Fâdıl Sâlih Sâmerrâî. el-Cumletu’l-Arabiyye ve’l-Manâ. Amman: Dâru’l-Fikr, 2013. google scholar
  • Ferrâ, Yahyâ b. Ziyâd. Me‘âni’l-Kur’ân. thk. Muhammed Ali en-Neccâr. Kahire: el-Hey’etu’l-MısriyyetuTÂmme, 1980. google scholar
  • Grünberg, Teo. Anlama Belirsizlik ve Çok Anlamlılık. Ankara: Gündoğan Yayınları, 1999. google scholar
  • Guiraud, Pierre. Anlambilim. çev. Berke Vardar. İstanbul: Multilingual, 1999. google scholar
  • Güman, Osman. “Fıkıh Usulü Geleneğinde Farklı Bir Tavır: Tevakkuf”, OMÜÎFD 33 (2012), 139-173. google scholar
  • Hâdî Nehr. Îlmu’d-Delâle. İrbid: Dâru’l-Emel, 2007. google scholar
  • Hevvârî, Hûd b. Muhakkem. Tefsîru Kitâbillâhi ’l-Azîz. thk. Belhâc b. Saîd. Beyrut, Dâru’l-Garbi’l-İslâmî, 1990. google scholar
  • Hilmi Halîl. el-Kelime. İskenderiye: Dâru’l-Ma‘rifeti’l-Câmiiyye, 1998. google scholar
  • İbn ‘Atıyye el-Endelüsî. el-Muharraru’l-Vecîz. thk. Abdusselâm Abduşşâfî. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Kutubi’l-İlmiyye, 2001. google scholar
  • İbn Cinnî, Ebu’l-Feth Osman. el-Hasâis. thk. Muhammed Ali en-Neccâr. Kahire: el-Hey’etu’l‘Âmme li Kusûri’s-Sekâfe, 2006. google scholar
  • İbn Fâris, Ebu’l-Huseyn Ahmed. Mu‘cemu Mekayîsi’l-Luga. thk. Abdusselâm Muhammed Hârûn. Dâru’l-Fikr, 1979. google scholar
  • İbn Fâris, Ebu’l-Huseyn Ahmed. es-Sâhibî fî Fıkhi’l-Luga. thk. Ömer Fârûk et-Tabbâ‘. Beyrut: Mektebetu’l-Ma‘ârif, 1993. google scholar
  • İbn Hâleveyh, Ebû Abdillah el-Huseyn b. Ahmed. İ‘râbu Selâsîne Sûre. thk. Muhammed Fehmî Ömer. Medine: Mektebetu Dâri’z-Zemân, 2006. google scholar
  • İbn Hişâm, Ebû Muhammed Cemâluddîn el-Ensârî. Muğni’l-Lebîb. thk. Muhammed Muhyiddîn Abdulhamîd. Beyrut: el-Mektebetu’l-Asriyye, 2013. google scholar
  • İbn Hişâm, Ebû Muhammed Cemâluddîn el-Ensârî. Şerhu Katri’n-Nedâ ve Belli’s-Sadâ. thk. Muhammed Muhyiddîn Abdulhamîd. Beyrut: el-Mektebetu’l-Asriyye, 1994. google scholar
  • İbn Kuteybe. Tefsîru Garîbi’l-Kur’ân. thk. es-Seyyid Ahmed Sakr. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Kutubi’l-İlmiyye, 1978. google scholar
  • İbn Manzûr, Cemâluddîn Muhammed b. Mukerrem. Lisânu’l-‘Arab. Beyrut: Dâru Sâdır. google scholar
  • İbnu’s-Serrâc, Ebû Bekr Muhammed b. Sehl. el-Usûl fi’n-Nahv. thk. Abdulhuseyn el-Fetelî. Beyrut: Muessesetu’r-Risâle, 1996. google scholar
  • İbrahim Enîs. Delâletu’l-Elfâz. Kahire: Mektebetu’l-Anglo el-Mısriyye, 1984. google scholar
  • İmer, Kâmile-Kocaman, Ahmet-Özsoy, A. Sumru. Dilbilim Sözlüğü. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi, 2013. google scholar
  • İmîl Bedî‘ Ya‘kûb-Mişel ‘Âsî. el-Mu‘cemu’l-Mufassal fi’l-Luga ve’l-Edeb. Beyrut: Dâru’l-‘İlm li’l-Melâyîn, 1987. google scholar
  • Kefevî, Ebu’l-Bekä. el-Kulliyyât. thk. Adnan Derviş-Muhammed el-Mısrî. Beyrut: Muessesetu’r-Risâle, 2012. google scholar
  • Kuşeyrî, Ebu’l-Kâsım. Letâifu’l-İşârât. thk. Abdullatîf Hasen. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Kutubi’l-İlmiyye, 1971. google scholar
  • Lyons, John. Nazariyyetu Chomsky el-Lugaviyye. çev: Hilmi Halîl. İskenderiye: Dâru’l-Ma‘rife el-Câmiiyye, 2016. google scholar
  • Mahmûd es-Sa‘rân. İlmu'-Luıga. Beyrut: Dâru’n-Nahdati’l-‘Arabiyye: 2013. google scholar
  • Mahmûd Fehmî Hicâzî. Medhal ilâ ‘İlmi’l-Luga. Kahire: Dâru Kubâ. google scholar
  • Mâlekî, Ahmed b. Abdinnûr. Rasfu’l-MebânîfîŞerhiHurûfi’l-Me‘âm. thk. Ahmed Muhammed el-Harrât. Dımaşk: Matba‘atu Mecme‘i’l-Lugati’l-Arabiyye. google scholar
  • Mâtürîdî, Ebû Mansûr. Te’vîlâtu’l-Kur’ân. thk. Ali Haydar Ulusoy-Bekir Topaloğlu. İstanbul: Mizan Yayınevi, 2008. google scholar
  • Mâverdî, Ebu’l-Hasen Ali b. Muhammed. en-Nuket ve’l-‘Uyûn. thk. es-Seyyid b. Abdilmaksûd. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Kutubi’l-İlmiyye. google scholar
  • Mekkî b. Ebî Tâlib. el-Hidâye ilâ Bulûgi’n-Nihâye. Şârika: 2008. google scholar
  • Mekkî b. Ebî Tâlib. Muşkilu İ‘râbi’l-Kur’ân. thk. Hâtim Sâlih. Beyrut: Muessesetu’r-Risâle, 1984. google scholar
  • Muhammed Hamâse Abdullatîf. Binâu’l-Cumleti’l-‘Arabiyye. Dâru Garîb, Kahire, 2003. google scholar
  • Muhammed Hamâse Abdullatîf. el-‘Alâmetu’l-İ‘râbiyye fi’l-Cümle Beyne’l-Kadîm ve’l-Hadîs. Kahire: Dâru Garîb, 2001. google scholar
  • Muhammed Yunus Ali. el-Ma‘nâ ve Zılâlu’l-Ma‘nâ. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Medâri’l-İslâmî, 2007. google scholar
  • Mukätil b. Süleymân. Tefsîr. thk. Abdullah Mahmûd Şehhâte. Beyrut: Muessesetu’t-Târîhi’l-‘Arabî, 2002. google scholar
  • Nehhâs, Ebû Cafer. Me‘âni’l-Kur’ân. thk. Muhammed Ali es-Sâbûnî. Mekke: 1989. google scholar
  • Nehhâs, Ebû Cafer. Şerhu Ebyâti Sîbeveyhi. thk. Züheyr Gâzî. Âlemu’l-Kutub, 1986. google scholar
  • Palmer, Frank Robert. Semantik. çev. Ramazan Ertürk. Ankara: Kitâbiyât, 2011. google scholar
  • Raddetullah et-Talhî. Delâletu’s-Siyâk. Mekke: Câmiatu Ummi’l-Kurâ, 1423. google scholar
  • Râzî, Fahreddîn. Mefâtîhu’l-Gayb. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Fikr, 1981. google scholar
  • Sa‘leb, Ebu'l-'Abbas Ahmed b. Yahyâ. Şerhu Dîvâni Züheyr b. EbîSülmâ. Kahire: Dâru’l-Kutub ve’l-Vesâiki’l-Kavmiyye, 2015. google scholar
  • Sa‘lebî, Ebû İshâk Ahmed b. Muhammed. el-Keşf ve’l-Beyân. thk. Ebû Muhammed b. ‘Âşûr. Beyrut: Dâru İhyâi’t-Turâsi’l-‘Arabî, 2002. google scholar
  • Sem‘ânî, Ebu’l-Muzaffer. Tefsîru’l-Kur’ân. thk. Ebû Bilâl Ganîm. Riyad: Dâru’l-Vatan, 1997. Semîn el-Halebî. ed-Dürrü’l-Masûn. thk. Ahmed Muhammed el-Harrât. Dâru’l-Kalem, Dımaşk. google scholar
  • Sîbeveyhi, Ebû Bişr Amr b. Osman. el-Kitâb. thk. Abdusselam Muhammed Harun. Kahire: Mektebetu’l-Hancî, 1988. google scholar
  • Sîrâfî, Ebû Saîd. Şerhu Kitâbi Sîbeveyhi. thk. Ramazan Abduttevvâb. Kahire: Dâru’l-Kutub, 2014. google scholar
  • Sünbâvî, el-Emîru’l-Kebîr. Hâşiye ‘alâMuğni’l-Lebîb. Kahire: 1299. google scholar
  • Süyûtî, Abdurrahman Celâluddîn. el-Müzhir fi ‘Ulûmi’l-Luga. thk. Muhammed Ahmed Câdelmevla vd. Kahire: Dâru’t-Turâs. google scholar
  • Şumunnî, Takıyyuddîn Ahmed b. Muhammed. el-Munsif mine’l-Kelâm ‘alâ Muğnî İbn Hişâm. Kahire: 1305. google scholar
  • Taberî, Muhammed b. Cerîr. Câmi‘u’l-Beyân ‘an Te’vîli Âyi’l-Kur’ân. thk. Abdullah b. Abdulmuhsin et-Türkî. Kahire: 2001. google scholar
  • Tehânevî, Muhammed b. Ali. Keşşâfu Istılâhâti’l-Funûn ve’l-‘Ulûm. thk. Ali Dahrûc. Beyrut: Mektebetu Lubnân Nâşirûn, 1996. google scholar
  • Temmâm Hassân, el-Beyân fî Ravâi‘i’l-Kur’ân. Kahire: Âlemu’l-Kutub, 2009. google scholar
  • Temmâm Hassân. “Emnu’l-Lebs ve Vesâilu’l-Vusûl İleyh”. Havliyyâtu Kulliyyeti Dâri’l-Ulûm 8 (1969), 123-140. google scholar
  • Temmâm Hassân, el-Fikru’l-Lugaviyyu’l-Cedîd. Kahire: Âlemu’l-Kutub, 2011. google scholar
  • Temmâm Hassân, İctihâdât Lugaviyye. Kahire: Âlemu’l-Kutub, 2007. google scholar
  • Temmâm Hassân, el-Lugatu’l-‘Arabiyye Ma‘nâhâ ve Mebnâhâ. ed-Dâru’l-Beyzâ: 1994. google scholar
  • Temmâm Hassân,Makölât fi’l-Luga ve’l-Edeb. Kahire: Âlemu’l-Kutub, 2006. google scholar
  • Tûsî, Ebû Cafer. et-Tibyân fî Tefsîri’l-Kur’ân. thk. Ahmed Habîb. Beyrut: Dâru İhyâi’t-Turâsi’l-‘Arabî. ‘Ukberî, Ebu’l-Beka. et-Tibyânfî İ‘râbi’l-Kur ’ân. thk. Sa‘d Küreyyim. Kahire: Dâru’l-Yakîn, 2001. Ullmann, Stephen. Devru’l-Kelime fi’l-Luga. çev: Kemal Bişr. Kahire: Dâru Garîb. google scholar
  • Vâhidî, Ebu’l-Hasen Ali b. Ahmed. el-Vasît fî Tefsîri’l-Kur’âni’l-Mecîd. thk. Âdil Ahmed Abdulmevcûd. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Kutubi’l-İlmiyye, 1994. google scholar
  • Vardar, Berke. Açıklamalı Dilbilim Terimleri Sözlüğü. İstanbul: Multilingual, 2002. google scholar
  • Zeccâc, Ebû İshâk İbrâhîm b. es-Serî. Me‘âni’l-Kur’ân ve İ‘râbuh. thk. Abdülcelîl Abduh. Beyrut: Âlemu’l-Kutub, 1988. google scholar
  • Zemahşerî, Ebu’l-Kâsım Mahmûd b. Ömer. el-Keşşâf. thk. Âdil Ahmed Abdulmevcûd. Riyad: Mektebetu’l-‘Ubeykân, 1998. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Aydın, B. (2023). The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā. darulfunun ilahiyat, 34(1), 119-146. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249


AMA

Aydın B. The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā. darulfunun ilahiyat. 2023;34(1):119-146. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249


ABNT

Aydın, B. The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā. darulfunun ilahiyat, [Publisher Location], v. 34, n. 1, p. 119-146, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Aydın, Bünyamin,. 2023. “The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā.” darulfunun ilahiyat 34, no. 1: 119-146. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249


Chicago: Humanities Style

Aydın, Bünyamin,. The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā.” darulfunun ilahiyat 34, no. 1 (Mar. 2024): 119-146. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249


Harvard: Australian Style

Aydın, B 2023, 'The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā', darulfunun ilahiyat, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 119-146, viewed 4 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Aydın, B. (2023) ‘The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā’, darulfunun ilahiyat, 34(1), pp. 119-146. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249 (4 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Aydın, Bünyamin,. The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā.” darulfunun ilahiyat, vol. 34, no. 1, 2023, pp. 119-146. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249


Vancouver

Aydın B. The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā. darulfunun ilahiyat [Internet]. 4 Mar. 2024 [cited 4 Mar. 2024];34(1):119-146. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249 doi: 10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249


ISNAD

Aydın, Bünyamin. The Concept of Tawaqquf in Grammatical Analysis In the Context of Ibn Hishām’s Idea of Murāʻāt al-Maʻnā”. darulfunun ilahiyat 34/1 (Mar. 2024): 119-146. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2023.34.1.1169249



TIMELINE


Submitted31.08.2022
Accepted24.10.2022
Published Online13.02.2023

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.