Augmented Verbs Expressing Reflexivity (Mutâva‘at) in the Arabic LanguageŞahabettin Ergüven
Verbs play a significant role in the Arabic language. Arab grammarians, from the time of Sîbeveyhî to the present day, have given special importance to verb patterns and their meanings whether they are mücerred (pure) verbs or mezîd (augmented) verbs. Generally, the verbs are studied in grammar books together with nouns and letters but we also see books dedicated to only verbs like the book of Kitâbu fa‘altü ve ef‘altü of Ebû İshâk ez-Zeccâc. In grammar books, verbs have been dealt with under various sub-titles. Ma‘lûm-meçhûl (active-passive), müte‘addî-lâzım (transitive – intransitive), sahîh-mu‘tel (sound-weak) and mutasarrıf-câmid (declinable – indeclinable) can be given as examples of these titles. Another important sub-topic of verbs is mezîd (augmented) verbs and their meanings. One of the meanings that mezîd verbs express is, with the expression of Sîbeveyhî, the subject of mutâva‘at (reflexivity) in which a ma‘lûm (active) verb gains the meaning of meçhul (passive). Verbs expressing mutâva‘at (reflexivity) were used both in religious texts and Arabic poetry and proverbs during the time before Islam (Câhiliyya). In this study, dictionary and lexical meanings of the word mutava‘at, the mezîd (augmented) verbs expressing mutâva‘at (reflexivity) meaning, the forms of the verbs with mutâva‘at (reflexivity), meaning in use, and grammarians’ opinion of mutâva‘at (reflexivity) will be examined in the light of examples from the Quran, Arabic poetry and proverbs.
Arapçada Dönüşlülük (Mutâva‘at) Anlamı İfade Eden Mezid FiillerŞahabettin Ergüven
Arapçada fiillerin önemli bir yeri vardır. Sîbeveyhi’den günümüze gramerciler ister mücerred ister mezîd olsun fiil vezinlerine ve ifade ettikleri anlamlara ayrı bir önem vermişlerdir. Fiiller konusu gramer kitaplarında isim ve harflerle birlikte yer aldığı gibi, fiiller konusunda müstakil eserler de yazılmıştır. Gramer kitaplarında fiiller çeşitli konu başlıkları altında ele alınmıştır. Bu başlıklara; ma‘lûm-meçhûl, müte‘addî-lâzım, sahîh-mu‘tel ve mutasarrıfcâmid başlıklarını örnek verebiliriz. Fiillerin önemli konu başlıklarından biri de türemiş (mezid) fiiller ve ifade ettikleri anlamlardır. Mezid fiillerin ifade ettiği anlamlardan biri de Sîbeveyhi’nin ifadesiyle ma‘lûm fiilin meçhul fiil anlam kazandığı mutâva‘at (dönüşlülük) konusudur. Mutâva‘at anlamı ifade eden fiiller gerek dini metinlerde gerekse Câhiliye dönemi Arap şiiri ve atasözlerinde kullanılmıştır. Biz bu çalışmada mutâva‘at kelimesinin sözlük ve terim anlamlarını, hangi mezid fiillerin mutâva‘at anlamı ifade ettiğini, mutâva‘at anlamlı fiillerin kullanım özelliklerini, gramercilerin mutâva‘at hakkındaki görüşlerini Kur’ân-ı Kerim, Arap şiiri ve atasözlerinden örnekler eşliğinde ele alıp inceleyeceğiz.
This study aims to investigate the utterance and meaning properties of augmented (mezîd) verbs expressing reflexivity (mutâva‘at) in the Arabic Language. In this study, dictionary definitions of the word ‘mutâva'at’, reflexivity measures of triliteral (sülâsi) verbs, augmented (mezîd) verbs expressing reflexivity (mutâva‘at), usage characteristics of the verbs expressing reflexivity, the opinions of grammarians about reflexivity and comparison of the verbs stating reflexivity with intransitive and passive verbs will be examined in the light of examples from the Qur’an, Arabic poetry and proverbs.
Verbs play a significant role in Arabic grammar. Expressing judgment with verb sentences forms the basis of expressing thoughts in Arabic. Arab grammarians, from the time of Sîbeveyhî to the present day, have given special importance to verb patterns and their meanings whether they are mücerred (pure) verbs or mezîd (augmented) verbs. Understanding Arabic texts correctly and translating them appropriately in Turkish is closely related to knowing verb measures and their meanings. In grammar books, verbs have been dealt with under various sub-titles. Active-passive (ma‘lûm-meçhûl), transitive-intransitive (müte‘addî-lâzım), soundweak (sahîh-mu‘tel) and declinable-indeclinable (mutasarrıf-câmid) can be given as examples of these titles. Another important sub-topic of verbs is augmented (mezîd) verbs and their meanings. Verbs in Arabic are divided into two parts depending on whether their letters are original or not. The first category is pure (mücerred) verbs all letters of which are original, and the second one is augmented (mezîd) verbs to which letters are attached. In the Arabic language there are different meanings that augmented verbs express and reflexivity is one of them. Verbs which carry the meaning of reflexivity were used both in religious texts and in Arabic poetry and proverbs during the time before Islam (Câhiliyya).
This study uses the scanning method, one of the data collection methods, to analyze and evaluate the collected data, and the views of the Arab grammarians on the subject were included. In order to better understand the subjects, the Qur'an, Arabic poetry and proverbs were quoted. In our preliminary research, it was found that there was no academic study on verbs expressing reflexivity in Arabic. Thus, we decided to prepare this study under the title of “Verbs Expressing Reflexivity in Arabic Language” to close this gap, even if only slightly.
In the Arabic language, “infi‘âl” is the basic measure in terms of reflexivity. The measure of “infi‘âl”, which is one of the augmented verbs, is always intransitive and it never takes a direct object (mef‘ûlün bih). While other augmented verbs express other meanings beside reflexivity, the measure of “infi‘âl” only expresses reflexivity. In the Arabic language, there also some other augmented measures expressing reflexivity. Verbs that express reflexivity are not a different notation of intransitive verbs since there are also some transitive verbs with the meaning of reflexivity which take a direct object. However, intransitive verbs can never receive direct objects. Verbs that express reflexivity are divided into two in terms of transitiveness. The first category is that of reflexive (mutâvî‘) verbs that are always intransitive and the other is that of reflexive verbs which are transitive. Other augmented verbs stating reflexivity are also intransitive most of the time.
While the topic of verbs is covered along with nouns and letters in grammar books, some books are dedicated only to verbs like the example of Kitâbu fa‘altü ve ef‘altü of Ebû İshâk ez-Zeccâc. In the words of Ibn Hisham, the meaning of reflexivity (mutâva‘at) is that the first of the two verbs creates an effect and the agent of the second verb accepts this effect. Agents of the verbs that express reflexivity have the meaning of object (mef‘ûl). In other words, agents of the verbs expressing reflexivity are not real agents which create an effect because these agents do not describe an action, state or occurrence, but on the contrary they are affected by the action.
As a basic fact of grammar taught by Arab grammarians, verbs expressing the meaning of reflexivity are not regular. Radıyüddîn al-Esterâbâdî also says that the use of augmented verbs is irregular, and that those things that are heard from the Arabs should be taken as a basis when deciding which pure triliteral verb comes in which augmented verb measure.
Arab grammarians included the style of reflexivity in their works and explained their conditions and features of their usage by giving examples from verse and poetry. There is no significant difference of opinion among the grammarians on the subject of reflexivity. The first grammarian who dealt with reflexivity was Sîbeveyhî. Later grammarians followed in his footsteps. Definitions of reflexivity given by later grammarians such as Radıyyüddîn elEsterâbâdî ve İbn Hişâm el-Ensârî were clearer and more precise, and their way of dealing with the issue was more systematic. Verbs expressing reflexivity are active in terms of utterance and passive with regard to meaning. Some grammarians, such as Sîbeveyhî, evaluate the verbs that express reflexivity in the same category as passive verbs in terms of meaning.