Research Article


DOI :10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867   IUP :10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867    Full Text (PDF)

The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers

Mehmet Bilal YamakTuba Bozbey

Yazidjioghlu Muhammed Efendi (d. 855/1451) and Ahmad Bidjan (d. 870/ after 1466) are two representative names in Ottoman Sufism history. Their written works were read and commented on literally and even translated into other languages both in and out of the Ottoman Empire. The Yazidjioghlu brothers, at the same time, were the disciples and successors of Hadji Bayram Velî. The brothers wrote many books; however, Muhammed Efendi’s verse Muhammadiyyah and Ahmad Bidjan’s prose Anwâr al-Âshiqîn were accepted as the two books that were mostly read by the scholars, follewers of sufism and the wider public. Muhammed Efendi wrote a commentary on the Fusus al-Hikam of Ibn Arabi whereas Ahmad Bidjan wrote two but the differences between these books were not specified thoroughly. Without these studies, it would be hard to follow the course of Sufistic views of the Yazidjioghlu brothers and understand their style and comprehend the reasons for their influence on the Ottoman Empire for such a long time. Yazidjizade Muhammed Efendi wrote a commentary on Fusus al-Hikam entitled al-Muntehâ ala al-Fusus, which was translated into Turkish by his brother, Ahmad Bidjan, with the title Kitab alMunteha ala al-Fusus in 1453; in addition, Bidjan wrote another book with the same title in 1465. These two books have the significance of being the first Turkish commentary on Ibn Arabi’s famous book published in Anatolia. However, while discussing these books, some sources have regarded them as a taliqat/annotation of the work of Cendi. In this study, this judgment will be corrected, and the reasoning will be explicated by describing the Yazidjizade brothers’ aforementioned works. Another distinctive feature of Ahmad Bidjan’s second commentary on Fusûs al-Hikam is that it contains full commentaries and meanings of some verses of the Qur’an. An excerpt from this work that is of the utmost importance to the history of Sufism, especially to the Ottoman period of it, and to the histories of tafseer and Turkish literature will be published here for the first time.

DOI :10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867   IUP :10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867    Full Text (PDF)

Yazıcızâde Kardeşlerin Müntehâ Adlı Eserlerinin Tavsîfi Meselesi

Mehmet Bilal YamakTuba Bozbey

Yazıcızâde Muhammed Efendi (ö. 855/1451) ve kardeşi Ahmed-i Bîcân (ö. 870/1466’dan sonra), Osmanlı tasavvuf târihinin temsîl gücü yüksek iki ismidir. Yazıcızâde Kardeşlerin eserleri, yüzyıllarca Osmanlı coğrafyasında ve bu coğrafyanın dışında okunmuş, üzerlerine şerhler yazılmış hatta Türkçenin haricindeki dillere de tercüme edilmiştir. Aynı zamanda Hacı Bayrâm-ı Velî’nin de derviş ve halîfeleri olan Yazıcızâde Kardeşlerin eserleri arasında, özellikle Muhammed Efendi’nin manzûm Muhammediyye, Ahmed-i Bîcân’ın ise mensûr Envâru’l-âşıkîn adlı eserleri; Osmanlı ulemâsı, sûfî çevreler ve halk tarafından en çok okunan, okutturulan kitaplar arasında addedilmektedir. Ayrıca; Muhammed Efendi’nin bir, Ahmed-i Bîcân’ın ise iki adet Fusûsu’l-hikem şerhinin târih ve nüsha ayrılıkları üzerinde bu çalışmaya kadar yeterince durulmamıştır. Bu eserler göz önünde bulundurulmadan Yazıcızâde Kardeşlerin tasavvufî görüşlerinin seyrini, üslûbunu ve bu görüşlerin uzun müddet Osmanlı çevrelerinde revaç bulmalarının sebebini anlamaya çalışmak ise zor olacaktır. Yazıcızâde Muhammed Efendi tarafından el-Müntehâ ale’l-Fusûs adıyla Arapça olarak yazılan Fusûsu’l-hikem şerhi kardeşi Ahmed-i Bîcân tarafından 857/1453 yılında Kitâbü’l-Müntehâ ale’lFusûs adıyla Türkçeye tevsîan tercüme edilmiş daha sonra 870/1465 yılında yine Ahmed-i Bîcân tarafından aynı adla bir eser daha kaleme alınmıştır. Bahsi geçen son iki eser Anadolu coğrafyasında Türkçe yazılmış ilk Fusûsu’lhikem şerhleri olma vasfını hâizdir. Ne var ki bu eserlerden bahseden bazı kaynaklar, söz konusu eserlerin Müeyyedüddîn-i Cendî’nin Fusûsu’lhikem şerhi üzerine yazılmış birer ta’likât olduğunu ifâde etmektedirler. Bu makâlede öncelikle bu hüküm tashih edilerek hükmün târihî seyri ve bu hükme sebep olan âmiller açığa çıkartılmaya çalışılacaktır. Akabinde; Yazıcızâde Kardeşlerin mevzubahis eserleri tavsîf edilecektir. Ahmed-i Bîcân’ın ikinci Fusûsu’l-Hikem şerhinin bir diğer özelliği de içerisinde müstakil sûre meâl ve tefsirlerini ihtivâ etmesidir. Tasavvuf tarihi, bâ-husûs Osmanlı tasavvuf, tefsîr ve Türk edebiyâtı tarihi açısından son derece önemli olan bu eserden de bir bölüm ilk kez bu makalede neşredilecektir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Yazidjioghlu Muhammed Efendi (d. 855/1451) and Ahmad Bidjan (d. 870/ after 1466) are two representative names in Ottoman Sufism history. Their written works were read and commented on literally and even translated into other languages both in and outside the Ottoman land. The Yazidjioghlu brothers, at the same time, were the disciples and successors of Hadji Bayram Velî. The brothers wrote many books; however, Muhammed Efendi’s verse Muhammadiyyah and Ahmad Bidjan’s prose Anwâr al-Âshiqîn were accepted as the two books that were mostly read by the scholars, Sufi environments, and the wider public. For instance; Muhammediyye is the verse book of Muhammed Efendi, which had a profound impact on Ottoman Sufism, and he gained fame with this work. The work was famous not only in Anatolian circles; starting in the sixteenth century, it gained a great reputation in the Crimea among Kazan Turks and Bashkirs. Anwâr al-Âshiqîn, on the contrary, had the quality of being a popular book that was recited as a daily prayer, seen as one of the five books that were loved and read, and even memorized in every part of Ottoman society. It was translated into Hungarian in 1624 by the translator and clerk of Erdel Ruler Gábor Bethlen. The brothers continued the scientific tradition they inherited from their father, Yazidji Salih, with a systematic education. Classical and modern sources do not give detailed information about their training. The Yazidjioghlu brothers, who have a good command of the sciences of tafsir, hadith, fiqh, theology, and philosophy within the framework of the sources they use in their works and the views they prefer, attracted attention with the annotations in which they followed the heritage of Ibn al-Arabi and Konevi. Furthermore, these preferences determined their other scientific preferences. Although both of them are the teachers of their own educator; the brothers prefer Sayyid Shareef al-Jurcani over Teftazani because of his affinity with Sufism, and they do not refrain from criticizing Teftazani harshly. The Yazidjioghlu brothers are the disciples and successors of Hadji Bayram Veli. They are extremely respectful to him; however, they do not include the practical applications of the Bayrami Order in their works. Within the framework of the works they wrote, it can be said that they are closer to Ibn al-Arabi’s manner than to the Bayrami Order. Despite this closeness, while being extremely respectful to the spiritual personality of Ibn al-Arabi, the approach they brought to the controversial issues of the relevant thought, such as the faith of the Pharaoh and the eternity of hell, differs from the tradition. They certainly do not accuse Ibn al-Arabi of some of the controversial issues he has raised because, according to them, Ibn al-Arabi is “innocent” and “excused”. As a result of this understanding, the other interpretive approaches of the Yazidjioghlu brothers that can be handled in a minor and secondary way are to discuss the issues to be criticized in Fusus al-hikam to the judgement of the Quran, hadiths, and other “outer” sciences. Thus, by not failing to respect Ibn al-Arabi, they become the bearers of the thought of wahdat al-wujud. Simultaneously, they interpret the points that can be misunderstood by “others” with their “Sufi/scholar” identities. Muhammed Efendi wrote a commentary on the Fusus al-Hikam of Ibn Arabi whereas Ahmad Bidjan wrote two. However, the differences between these books were not specified thoroughly until that work. Without these studies, it would be hard to follow the course of Sufistic views of the Yazidjioghlu brothers and understand their style and comprehend the reasons for their influence on the Ottoman lands for such a long time. Yazidjizade Muhammed Efendi wrote a commentary on Fusus al-Hikam entitled al-Muntehâ ala al-Fusus and it was translated into Turkish by his brother, Ahmad Bidjan, titled Kitab al-Munteha ala al-Fusus in 1453; additionally, Bidjan wrote another book with the same title in 1465. These two books have the significance of being the first Turkish commentary on Ibn Arabi’s famous book published in Anatolia. However, while discussing these books, some sources have regarded them as a taliqat/annotation of the work of Cendi. In this study, this judgment will be corrected, and the reasoning will be explicated by describing the Yazidjizade Brothers’ aforementioned works. Another distinctive feature of Ahmad Bidjan’s second commentary on Fusûs al-Hikam is that it contains full commentaries and the meanings of some verses of the Qur’an. Ahmad Bidjan performed his tafseer practice within the framework of a definite method. His interpretation of the Qur’an regards a degree of understanding. He interprets the verses with the approaches of “tashree,” “tahkeek,” and “ta’weel.” In particular, Ahmad Bidjan’s Müntehâ II is important with its tafseer of eighteen independent surahs. An excerpt (Surah Yasin) from this work that is of the utmost importance to the history of Sufism, especially to the Ottoman period of it and to the histories of tafseer and Turkish literature will be published here for the first time. The reason why Surah Yasin was chosen from the eighteen surahs that took place in the book can be expressed as follows: Surah Yasin was described as the “heart of the Qur’an” by the Prophet (pbuh), and that is why this surah was interpreted independently in Ottoman tafseer and Sufism circles many times. After this publication, related comments can be compared with those of Ahmad Bidjan. Furthermore, this study will provide data in terms of the religious language of the century. 


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APA

Yamak, M.B., & Bozbey, T. (2021). The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers. Journal of Islamic Review, 11(2), 639-674. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867


AMA

Yamak M B, Bozbey T. The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers. Journal of Islamic Review. 2021;11(2):639-674. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867


ABNT

Yamak, M.B.; Bozbey, T. The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers. Journal of Islamic Review, [Publisher Location], v. 11, n. 2, p. 639-674, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Yamak, Mehmet Bilal, and Tuba Bozbey. 2021. “The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers.” Journal of Islamic Review 11, no. 2: 639-674. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867


Chicago: Humanities Style

Yamak, Mehmet Bilal, and Tuba Bozbey. The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers.” Journal of Islamic Review 11, no. 2 (Oct. 2021): 639-674. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867


Harvard: Australian Style

Yamak, MB & Bozbey, T 2021, 'The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers', Journal of Islamic Review, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 639-674, viewed 20 Oct. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Yamak, M.B. and Bozbey, T. (2021) ‘The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers’, Journal of Islamic Review, 11(2), pp. 639-674. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867 (20 Oct. 2021).


MLA

Yamak, Mehmet Bilal, and Tuba Bozbey. The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers.” Journal of Islamic Review, vol. 11, no. 2, 2021, pp. 639-674. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867


Vancouver

Yamak MB, Bozbey T. The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers. Journal of Islamic Review [Internet]. 20 Oct. 2021 [cited 20 Oct. 2021];11(2):639-674. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867 doi: 10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867


ISNAD

Yamak, MehmetBilal - Bozbey, Tuba. The Problem of Describing the Books Called Munteha by the Yazidjizade Brothers”. Journal of Islamic Review 11/2 (Oct. 2021): 639-674. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2021.972867



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Submitted18.07.2021
Accepted22.09.2021
Published Online04.10.2021

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