Published by the Istanbul University Department of Sociology, İstanbul University Journal of Sociology has held an important place in the development of sociology as a scientific discipline in Turkey. First published in 1917, İstanbul University Journal of Sociology was the first sociology journal written in Turkish. In its roughly 100-year history, the journal has become the most pioneering and prominent publication within the discipline. The publication languages of the journal are Turkish, English, French and Germany.

İstanbul University Journal of Sociology is an open-access, double-blind peer-reviewed, international journal focusing on the publication of research and studies covering all aspects of the social. The journal’s goal is to aid and facilitate both international and interdisciplinary scientific communication, to strengthen the links between scientific research and society in Turkey, and to stimulate and enhance the quality of debate. Representing an interdisciplinary forum for the exchange of recent data and expert opinions, it reflects the importance of a comprehensive approach to resolving the social problems in Turkey.
İstanbul University Journal of Sociology publishes peer-reviewed research reports on sociology, bringing together research conducted within a variety of different disciplines. Articles include theoretical, philosophical, political essays, research papers, research on social behaviors, and historical research related to any social activity. In addition to original research, the journal features both articles and book reviews.
Studies that clearly contribute to the current knowledge of sociology are given priority. Scholarly commentaries on topical issues and systematic reviews are also encouraged.

All expenses of the journal are covered by the Istanbul University. Processing and publication are free of charge with the journal. There is no article processing charges or submission fees for any submitted or accepted articles. http://istanbul.edu.tr:8080/en/journal/iusd/information/policies
Editor-in-Chief
Prof. İsmail Coşkun, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Co-Editor-in-Chief
Assoc. Prof. Murat Şentürk, İstanbul Üniversitesi, İstanbul, Turkey

Managing Editor
Assist. Prof. Adem Başpınar, Kırklareli Üniversitesi, Kirklareli, Turkey

Section Editor
Prof. Yücel Bulut, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Besim Can Zırh, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkey
Prof. Ali Ergur, Galatasaray Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Nadir Suğur, Anadolu Üniversitesi, Eskisehir, Turkey
Prof. Mutlu Binark, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkey

Scientific Secretariat
Res. Assist. Zeynep Zehra Sadıkoğlu, İstanbul Medeniyet Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Editorial Relations Manager
Assoc. Prof. Ayşen Şatıroğlu, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Statistics Editor
Assist. Prof. Tuba Topçuoğlu, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Book Review Editor
Assist. Prof. Mehmet Ali Akyurt, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Methodology Editor
Assist. Prof. Aynur Erdoğan Coşkun, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Publicity Manager
Assist. Prof. Melike Akbıyık, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Editorial Assistant
Res. Assist. Hamdüsena Eşrefoğlu, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Technical Specialist
Res. Assist. Begüm Uzun, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

English Language Editor
John Zacharias Crist, EDAM Educational Consultancy & Research Center, Istanbul, Turkey
Kevin A. Collins, EDAM Educational Consultancy & Research Center, Istanbul, Turkey

Editorial Board Member
Assoc. Prof. Ayşen Şatıroğlu, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Enes Kabakcı, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Metin Ünver, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Yücel Bulut, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assist. Prof. Adem Başpınar, Kırklareli Üniversitesi, Kirklareli, Turkey
Prof. Ali Ergur, Galatasaray Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Kurtuluş Kayalı, Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkey
Prof. Nadir Suğur, Anadolu Üniversitesi, Eskisehir, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Craig Browne, Sydney University, Sydney, Australia
Prof. David R. Segal, Maryland University, Maryland, United-States
Prof. Douglas Kellner, University of California, California, United-States
Prof. Glenn W. Muschert, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu-Dhabi, United-Arab-Emirates
Prof. J. Scott Brown, University of Miami, Florida, United-States
Prof. Jeffrey C. Alexander, Yale University, New-Haven, United-States
Dr. Michal Illner, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia
Prof. Philip Smith, Yale University, New-Haven, United-States
Assoc. Prof. Ryan Kelty, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado, United-States
Prof. Sujatha Fernandes, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Prof. Timothy Shortell, City University of New York, New-York, United-States
Prof. William Peter Baehr, Lingnan University, Tuen-Mun, Hong-Kong

The journal’s goal is to aid and facilitate both international and interdisciplinary scientific communication, to strengthen the links between scientific research and society in Turkey, and to stimulate and enhance the quality of debate. Representing an interdisciplinary forum for the exchange of recent data and expert opinions, it reflects the importance of a comprehensive approach to resolving the social problems in Turkey.

İstanbul University Journal of Sociology publishes peer-reviewed research reports on sociology, bringing together research conducted within a variety of different disciplines. Articles include theoretical, philosophical, political essays, research papers, research on social behaviors, and historical research related to any social activity. In addition to original research, the journal features both articles and book reviews.

Web of Science Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)

TÜBİTAK ULAKBİM TR-Dizin 

EBSCO Sociology Source

DOAJ


The journal is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparency-and-best-practice-scholarly-publishing

The subjects covered in the manuscripts submitted to the Journal for publication must be in accordance with the aim and scope of the Journal. Only those manuscripts approved by every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Changing the name of an author (omission, addition or order) in papers submitted to the Journal requires written permission of all declared authors.

Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unethical behaviors. All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This also contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication.

Plagiarism
Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. If plagiarism/self-plagiarism will be found authors will be informed. Editors may resubmit manuscript for similarity check at any peer-review or production stage if required. High similarity scores may lead to rejection of a manuscript before and even after acceptance. Depending on the type of article and the percentage of similarity score taken from each article, the overall similarity score is generally expected to be less than 15 or 20%.

Double Blind Peer-Review
After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by the editors-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope. The editor provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles and hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

The journal is an open access journal and all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Except for commercial purposes, users are allowed to read, download, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

The open access articles in the journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.

All expenses of the journal are covered by the Istanbul University. Processing and publication are free of charge with the journal. There is no article processing charges or submission fees for any submitted or accepted articles.

Authors publishing with the journal retain the copyright to their work licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) and grant the Publisher non-exclusive commercial right to publish the work. CC BY-NC 4.0 license permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


İstanbul University Journal of Sociology is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparency-and-best-practice-scholarly-publishing

All submissions must be original, unpublished (including as full text in conference proceedings), and not under the review of any other publication synchronously. Authors must ensure that submitted work is original. They must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere or is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere, in any language. Applicable copyright laws and conventions must be followed. Copyright material (e.g. tables, figures or extensive quotations) must be reproduced only with appropriate permission and acknowledgement. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources must be appropriately credited and referenced.

Each manuscript is reviewed by one of the editors and at least two referees under double-blind peer review process. Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unnethical behaviors.

All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This also contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication. In accordance with the code of conduct we will report any cases of suspected plagiarism or duplicate publishing.

İstanbul University Journal of Sociology adheres to the highest standards in research ethics and follows the principles of international research ethics as defined below. The authors are responsible for the compliance of the manuscripts with the ethical rules.

-    Principles of integrity, quality and transparency should be sustained in designing the research, reviewing the design and conducting the research.

-    The research team and participants should be fully informed about the aim, methods, possible uses and requirements of the research and risks of participation in research.

-    The confidentiality of the information provided by the research participants and the confidentiality of the respondents should be ensured. The research should be designed to protect the autonomy and dignity of the participants.

-    Research participants should participate in the research voluntarily, not under any coercion.

-    Any possible harm to participants must be avoided. The research should be planned in such a way that the participants are not at risk.

-    The independence of research must be clear; and any conflict of interest or must be disclosed.

-    In experimental studies with human subjects, written informed consent of the participants who decide to participate in the research must be obtained. In the case of children and those under wardship or with confirmed insanity, legal custodian’s assent must be obtained.

-    If the study is to be carried out in any institution or organization, approval must be obtained from this institution or organization.

-    In studies with human subject, it must be noted in the method’s section of the manuscript that the informed consent of the participants and ethics committee approval from the institution where the study has been conducted have been obtained.


It is authors’ responsibility to ensure that the article is in accordance with scientific and ethical standards and rules. And authors must ensure that submitted work is original. They must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere or is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere, in any language. Applicable copyright laws and conventions must be followed. Copyright material (e.g. tables, figures or extensive quotations) must be reproduced only with appropriate permission and acknowledgement. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources must be appropriately credited and referenced.

All the authors of a submitted manuscript must have direct scientific and academic contribution to the manuscript. The author(s) of the original research articles is defined as a person who is significantly involved in “conceptualization and design of the study”, “collecting the data”, “analyzing the data”, “writing the manuscript”, “reviewing the manuscript with a critical perspective” and “planning/conducting the study of the manuscript and/or revising it”. Fund raising, data collection or supervision of the research group are not sufficient roles to be accepted as an author. The author(s) must meet all these criteria described above. The order of names in the author list of an article must be a co-decision and it must be indicated in the Copyright Agreement Form. The individuals who do not meet the authorship criteria but contributed to the study must take place in the acknowledgement section. Individuals providing technical support, assisting writing, providing a general support, providing material or financial support are examples to be indicated in acknowledgement section.

All authors must disclose all issues concerning financial relationship, conflict of interest, and competing interest that may potentially influence the results of the research or scientific judgment.

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published paper, it is the author’s obligation to promptly cooperate with the Editor-in-Chief to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes.


Editor evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. Editor provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor is responsible for the content and overall quality of the publication and must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers. Only editor has the full authority to assign a reviewer and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers’ judgments must be objective. Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the Editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the Editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. Unless the authors and editor permit, the reviews of referees cannot be published or disclosed. The anonymity of the referees is important. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.


Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by editor-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

The editor hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for double-blind peer review evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. Editor-in-Chief provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication. He/She must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers. Only he has the full authority to assign a reviewer and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by Editor-in-Chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors and ensures a fair double-blind peer review of the selected manuscripts.​
The selected manuscripts are sent to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and publication decision is given by Editor-in-Chief upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers’ judgments must be objective. Reviewers’ comments on the following aspects are expected while conducting the review.

- Does the manuscript contain new and significant information?

- Does the abstract clearly and accurately describe the content of the manuscript?

- Is the problem significant and concisely stated?

- Are the methods described comprehensively?

- Are the interpretations and consclusions justified by the results?

- Is adequate references made to other Works in the field?

- Is the language acceptable?

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees is important.

General Formatting Requirements

Formatting and content requirements for manuscripts to be submitted to İstanbul University Journal of Sociology 

Font: The font used in the entire manuscript should be Times New Roman, font size 10. For tables and figures, see below.

Page Layout: Page margins for bottom, top, right, and left should be pre-set as 2.5 cm (0.98 inch). Text should be justified with no hyphenation breaks in words at the end of a line. Text should be typed as a single-column document. Paragraphs and headings should not be indented, but aligned with the main text.

Paragraph Format: Paragraph indents should be pre-set in the tabs section as follows:

before and after: 0.6 nk

line spacing: 1.5.

Page Limit: Manuscripts prepared in compliance with the guidelines should not exceed 20 pages.

Manuscript Sections

Title: Article titles should be boldfaced and centered. If the study has been submitted before or extracted from a project or a thesis, an asterisk (*) should be placed at the end of the title and an explanation provided as a footnote. (Please refer to the sample).

Author (s)’s Names: Author’s names should be written in bold. Authors’ full names, titles, institutional affiliations, postal addresses, and contact details such as e-mail addresses should be mentioned.

Abstract: Abstracts should be between150–200 words. No citations should appear in the abstract

Key Words: 5–8 words representing the manuscript should be given as keywords.

Main Text: Qualitative and quantitative studies should contain the following sections: Introduction, Method, Findings, and Discussion. The Methods section must include Sampling/Study Population, Data Collection Tools,and Procedure as sub-sections if an original research method has been used.

Literature reviews should elaborate on the problem, analyze the relevant literature, emphasize the gaps and inconsistencies in the literature, and discuss actions toward solving these problems.

Other types of studies can allow slight variations in sections, but they should not contain too many details and sub-sections that could distract readers’ attention and compromise readability.

Başlık* Title in Turkish

Öz* Öz (Abstract in Turkish) should be between150–200 words. No citations should appear in the “öz”

Anahtar Kelimeler* 5-8 Turkish words representing the manuscript should be given as “anahtar kelimeler”

Uzun Özet* A 1000-1500 word extended abstract in Turkish that provides the main points of main text

References: Both in-text citations and references should comply with the APA guidelines as provided in the Publication Manual of American Psychological Association

(APA) (6th edition).

  • “Başlık”, “Öz”, “Anahtar Kelimeler” and “Uzun Özet” will be supplied by İstanbul University Journal of Sociology translation office for authors whose native language is not Turkish

Tables, Figures, and Appendices

Tables and Figures: Tables, figures, pictures, graphics, and similar aspects should be embedded in the text, and not provided as appendices.

For tables and figures, use Times New Roman, font size 9.

Under the Paragraph tab, ensure that the indentation is as follows:

  • Before and after: 0
  • Spacing: Single

Tables and figures should be left aligned, and the text wrapping feature should be turned off. Please refer to the sample below for tables.

Appendices: Each appendix should be displayed on a separate page after the references section.


Before beginning the online submission process please read the Information for Authors and make sure you have the followings available:

Formatting and content requirements for manuscripts to be submitted to İstanbul University Journal of Sociology

Cover letter to the editor

    • The category of the manuscript
    • Confirming that “the paper is not under consideration for publication in another journal”.
    • Including disclosure of any commercial or financial involvement.
    • Confirming that the statistical design of the research article is reviewed.
    • Confirming that last control for fluent English was done.
    • Confirming that journal policies detailed in Information for Authors have been reviewed.
    • Confirming that the references cited in the text and listed in the references section are in line with APA 6.

Copyright Agreement Form

Permission of previous published material if used in the present manuscript

Title page

    • The category of the manuscript
    • The title of the manuscript both in the language of the article and in English
    • All authors’ names and affiliations (institution, faculty/department, city, country), e-mail addresses
    • Corresponding author’s email address, full postal address, telephone and fax number
    • ORCIDs of all authors.

Main Manuscript Document

    • The title of the manuscript both in the language of the article and in English
    • Abstracts (200-250 words) both in the language of the article and in English
    • Key words: 5 words both in the language of the article and in English
    • Extended Abstract (600-800 words) in English (only for articles which are not in English)
    • Main article sections
    • Acknowledgement (if exits)
    • References
    • All tables, illustrations (figures) (including title, description, footnotes)

Manuscript Submission

  • ScholarOne manuscript submission site of the journal is: http://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/tjs 
  • The manuscript must be submitted through the account of the corresponding author. The account of authors other than the corresponding author or someone else who is not included as an author in the work must not be used for submission. All correspondence regarding the submission is made with the corresponding author through e-mail via the ScholarOne system.
  • To login to the ScholarOne manuscript submission system, you must have a User ID and password. If you do not have a username and password, you must follow the instructions in the Create Account at ScholarOne manuscript submission site of the journal.
  • If you experience problems with your account, please do not create a new one and contact İstanbul University Journal of Sociology Editorial Office via sosyolojidergi@istanbul.edu.tr
  • When you log in, click the Author button at the top of the page.
  • Clicking the Author button, you will access Author Dashboard. By clicking Unsubmitted and Manuscripts in Draft heading on the Dashboard you can access your unsubmitted manuscripts. To make a new submission, please click Start New Submission.
  • Manuscript submission is a 7-step process. At any stage you can stop the submission process; everything you have typed into the system will be saved. You can continue to your semi- completed submission by viewing it in the Unsubmitted and Manuscript in Draft section. 
  • The 2nd step in the submission process is to upload your manuscript. 
  • To upload files; Select the file you want to upload from the Selection File button. Specify the file type from the File Designation button beside. 
  • While uploading Main Document, make sure that the main document has no information that clarify the author’s identity. Due to double blind peer review, Main Document must not include Title Page, the name of author or any other detail that can disclose the author identity. 
  • Additionaly, Supplemental File for Review must not include any detail that can disclose author identity as well.

Files to be uploaded separately

    • The title of the manuscript both in the language of the article and in English
    • Abstracts (200-250 words) both in the language of the article and in English
    • Key words: 5 words both in Turkish and in English
    • Extended Abstract (600-800 words) in English (only for articles which are not in English)
    • Main article sections
    • Acknowledgement (if exists)
    • References
    • All tables, illustrations (figures) (including title, description, footnotes)
  • Clicking the Upload Selected Files, the files mentioned above will be uploaded and automatically converted to PDF files on the system.
  • After uploading,  please click on PDF button and view your files. If the uploaded files have flaws, you can delete the files and repeat upload process.
  • Cover letter can be uploaded on the 6th step in the submission process. The final step in manuscript submission process lists all the information you have submitted.  The complete information will be indicated by a green check (). If incomplete, there will be a red cross (x) check. Once you have completed the submission process to your satisfaction click on the submit button.
  • Once the manuscript submission is completed, verification screen including your Manuscript ID will appear, and you will be notified via email.

İstanbul University Journal of Sociology complies with APA (American Psychological Association) style 6th Edition for referencing and quoting. For more information:

-    American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: APA.

-    http://www.apastyle.org

Accuracy of citation is the author’s responsibility. All references should be cited in text. Reference list must be in alphabetical order. Type references in the style shown below.

Citations in the Text

Citations must be indicated with the author surname and publication year within the parenthesis.

If more than one citation is made within the same paranthesis, separate them with (;).

Samples:

More than one citation;

(Esin et al., 2002; Karasar, 1995)

Citation with one author;

(Akyolcu, 2007)

Citation with two authors;

(Sayıner & Demirci, 2007)

Citation with three, four, five authors;

First citation in the text: (Ailen, Ciambrune, & Welch, 2000) Subsequent citations in the text: (Ailen et al., 2000)

Citations with more than six authors;

(Çavdar et al., 2003)

Citations in the Reference

All the citations done in the text should be listed in the References section in alphabetical order of author surname without numbering. Below given examples should be considered in citing the references.

Basic Reference Types

Book

a) Turkish Book

Karasar, N. (1995). Araştırmalarda rapor hazırlama (8th ed.) [Preparing research reports]. Ankara, Turkey: 3A Eğitim Danışmanlık Ltd.

b) Book Translated into Turkish

Mucchielli, A. (1991). Zihniyetler [Mindsets] (A. Kotil, Trans.). İstanbul, Turkey: İletişim Yayınları.

c) Edited Book

Ören, T., Üney, T., & Çölkesen, R. (Eds.). (2006). Türkiye bilişim ansiklopedisi [Turkish Encyclopedia of Informatics]. İstanbul, Turkey: Papatya Yayıncılık.

d) Turkish Book with Multiple Authors

Tonta, Y., Bitirim, Y., & Sever, H. (2002). Türkçe arama motorlarında performans değerlendirme [Performance evaluation in Turkish search engines]. Ankara, Turkey: Total Bilişim.

e) Book in English

Kamien R., & Kamien A. (2014). Music: An appreciation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

f) Chapter in an Edited Book

Bassett, C. (2006). Cultural studies and new media. In G. Hall & C. Birchall (Eds.), New cultural studies: Adventures in theory (pp. 220–237). Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.

g) Chapter in an Edited Book in Turkish

Erkmen, T. (2012). Örgüt kültürü: Fonksiyonları, öğeleri, işletme yönetimi ve liderlikteki önemi [Organization culture: Its functions, elements and importance in leadership and business management]. In M. Zencirkıran (Ed.), Örgüt sosyolojisi [Organization sociology] (pp. 233–263). Bursa, Turkey: Dora Basım Yayın.

h) Book with the same organization as author and publisher

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Article

a) Turkish Article

Mutlu, B., & Savaşer, S. (2007). Çocuğu ameliyat sonrası yoğun bakımda olan ebeveynlerde stres nedenleri ve azaltma girişimleri [Source and intervention reduction of stress for parents whose children are in intensive care unit after surgery]. Istanbul University Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing, 15(60), 179–182.

b) English Article

de Cillia, R., Reisigl, M., & Wodak, R. (1999). The discursive construction of national identity. Discourse and Society, 10(2), 149–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957926599010002002

c) Journal Article with DOI and More Than Seven Authors

Lal, H., Cunningham, A. L., Godeaux, O., Chlibek, R., Diez-Domingo, J., Hwang, S.-J. ... Heineman, T. C. (2015). Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 372, 2087–2096. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1501184

d) Journal Article from Web, without DOI

Sidani, S. (2003). Enhancing the evaluation of nursing care effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 35(3), 26–38. Retrieved from http://cjnr.mcgill.ca

e) Journal Article wih DOI

Turner, S. J. (2010). Website statistics 2.0: Using Google Analytics to measure library website effectiveness. Technical Services Quarterly, 27, 261–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07317131003765910

f) Advance Online Publication

Smith, J. A. (2010). Citing advance online publication: A review. Journal of Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a45d7867

g) Article in a Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28–31.

Doctoral Dissertation, Master’s Thesis, Presentation, Proceeding

a) Dissertation/Thesis from a Commercial Database

Van Brunt, D. (1997). Networked consumer health information systems (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 9943436)

b) Dissertation/Thesis from an Institutional Database

Yaylalı-Yıldız, B. (2014). University campuses as places of potential publicness: Exploring the politicals, social and cultural practices in Ege University (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://library.iyte.edu.tr/tr/hizli-erisim/iyte-tez-portali

c) Dissertation/Thesis from Web

Tonta, Y. A. (1992). An analysis of search failures in online library catalogs (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley). Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/yayinlar /phd/ickapak.html

d) Dissertation/Thesis abstracted in Dissertations Abstracts International

Appelbaum, L. G. (2005). Three studies of human information processing: Texture amplifica­tion, motion representation, and figure-ground segregation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 65(10), 5428.

e) Symposium Contribution

Krinsky-McHale, S. J., Zigman, W. B., & Silverman, W. (2012, August). Are neuropsychiatric symptoms markers of prodromal Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down syndrome? In W. B. Zigman (Chair), Predictors of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and mortality in adults with Down syndrome. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

f) Conference Paper Abstract Retrieved Online

Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from http://www.iceis.org/iceis2005/abstracts_2005.htm

g) Conference Paper - In Regularly Published Proceedings and Retrieved Online

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 12593–12598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0805417105

h) Proceeding in Book Form

Parsons, O. A., Pryzwansky, W. B., Weinstein, D. J., & Wiens, A. N. (1995). Taxonomy for psychology. In J. N. Reich, H. Sands, & A. N. Wiens (Eds.), Education and training beyond the doctoral degree: Proceedings of the American Psychological Association National Conference on Postdoctoral Education and Training in Psychology (pp. 45–50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

i) Paper Presentation

Nguyen, C. A. (2012, August). Humor and deception in advertising: When laughter may not be the best medicine. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

Other Sources

a) Newspaper Article

Browne, R. (2010, March 21). This brainless patient is no dummy. Sydney Morning Herald, 45.

b) Newspaper Article with no Author

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

c) Web Page/Blog Post

Bordwell, D. (2013, June 18). David Koepp: Making the world movie-sized [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.davidbordwell.net/blog/page/27/

d) Online Encyclopedia/Dictionary

Ignition. (1989). In Oxford English online dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed. com

Marcoux, A. (2008). Business ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-business/

e) Podcast

Dunning, B. (Producer). (2011, January 12). inFact: Conspiracy theories [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com/

f) Single Episode in a Television Series

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate. [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House; New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

g) Music

Fuchs, G. (2004). Light the menorah. On Eight nights of Hanukkah [CD]. Brick, NJ: Kid Kosher.

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