Research Article


DOI :10.26650/JECS2019-0007   IUP :10.26650/JECS2019-0007    Full Text (PDF)

The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender

Filiz Göktuna YaylacıMehmet Can Çarpar

In recent years, forced migration, which is pretty important in Turkey’s agenda, is discussed by different disciplines, especially in politics, in different frameworks, such as integration, education, security, health and gender. When considering the studies that examining forced migration from a gender perspective, however, it is seen that the studies mostly focus on women because they are more exposed to social problems. This situation, which is added to the representation of refugee masculinity as perpetrators in the host societies, mostly by media, causes the experience of male refugees to be invisible, and the social aid practices directed towards refugees are less susceptible to the problems of men. In this context, the main purpose of this research is to analyze the problems of male refugees that cannot be seen because of their negative representations, and to discuss them based on social aid policies. The study was designed as a phenomenological qualitative research. Data were collected from 17 male refugees and five specialists who are working in the field of humanitarian aid, by semi-structured interview technique. The findings of the research show that, like refugee women, some refugee men are exposed to various social problems, such as violence, discrimination, poverty, unemployment and labor exploitation. Another remarkable finding in the study is that, despite their disadvantages, single and unaccompanied refugee men were excluded from the field of social aid and migration regulations. 
DOI :10.26650/JECS2019-0007   IUP :10.26650/JECS2019-0007    Full Text (PDF)

Zorunlu Göçün Görün(e)meyen Aktörleri: Temsil ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet Bağlamında Sığınmacı Erkekler

Filiz Göktuna YaylacıMehmet Can Çarpar

Son yıllarda Türkiye’nin gündemini oldukça meşgul eden zorunlu göç, başta siyaset bilimleri olmak üzere çeşitli disiplinler tarafından uyum, eğitim, güvenlik, sağlık ve toplumsal cinsiyet gibi farklı çerçevelerde tartışılmaktadır. Ancak zorunlu göç olgusunun toplumsal cinsiyet ile ilişkilendirildiği araştırmalara bakıldığında, çalışmaların, daha fazla soruna maruz kalmaları nedeniyle çoğunlukla kadınlara odaklandığı görülmektedir. Sığınmacı erkeklerin büyük ölçüde medyanın etkisiyle göç alan toplumlarda olumsuz olarak temsil edilmesine eklemlenen bu durum, erkek sığınmacı deneyiminin görülememesine ve sosyal yardım uygulamalarının erkeklerin sorunlarına daha az eğilmelerine neden olmaktadır. Bu noktadan hareketle bu araştırmanın temel amacı sığınmacı erkeklerin olumsuz temsilleri nedeniyle görünemeyen sorunlarını analiz ederek sosyal yardım politikaları temelinde tartışmaktır. Çalışma nitel bir araştırma biçiminde fenomenolojik olarak desenlenmiştir. Araştırmanın verileri Eskişehir’de ikamet eden farklı uyruklara mensup 17 erkek sığınmacı ve zorunlu göç alanında çalışan beş saha görevlisinden yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği ile toplanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen bulgular bazı sığınmacı erkeklerin kadınlara benzer bir biçimde şiddet, ayrımcılık, yoksulluk, işsizlik, emek sömürüsü gibi çeşitli sosyal sorunlara maruz kaldıklarını göstermektedir. Araştırmada dikkat çeken bir diğer bulgu ise yaşadıkları dezavantajlı durumlara ve sorunlara rağmen özellikle bekâr ve refakatsiz sığınmacı erkeklerin sosyal yardım ve göç düzenlemeleri alanlarından dışlanmaları olmuştur. 

EXTENDED ABSTRACT


For various migrant groups, Turkey has been a transit country for many years. However, due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, Turkey has become the number one destination for Syrian refugees, and now hosts the largest refugee group in the world. This transformation has attracted the attention of different academic disciplines such as law, social policy, social work, psychology and sociology, and especially in politics and media, it has emerged as one of the most debated subjects in recent years. As a result, scholarly researches in increasing numbers have attempted to examine the phenomenon of forced migration from different dimensions, such as security, policy, education, health and gender. However, when considering studies examining forced migration from a gender perspective, it is seen that the studies mostly focus on women because they are more exposed to problems. This situation, which is added to the negative representation of refugee men in the host societies, causes the experience of male refugees to be invisible, and the social aid practices directed towards refugees are less susceptible to the problems of men. Based on this point, this study aims to analyze the problems of male refugees that cannot be seen because of their negative representations, and to discuss them based on social work and aid policies. In line with this purpose, the study was designed as a qualitative research. The working sample of the study consists of 17 male refugees from various nationalities residing in Eskişehir and five specialists who are working in the field of humanitarian aid. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews. The findings of the study indicate that some refugee men are exposed to many social problems, like women, such as discrimination and violence with reference to their gender. Male refugees are experiencing tensions because of their responsibility to support the family. At the same time, they are excluded from migration regulations and social aids aimed at solving these tensions. According to the findings, most of the participants have difficulties in accessing basic needs, such as employment and housing, because of the misrepresentation of masculinity of the male refugees. Although providing for the family is accepted as a male responsibility especially in economic terms, tensions arise because male refugees cannot fulfill this responsibility alone. This situation increases the problems of male refugees in the asylum process, while imposing a passive role at home for refugee women. In addition to difficult situations male refugees experience only because of their gender, their exclusion from migration regulations and social benefits makes their asylum process even more difficult. As a result, it can be concluded that social aid policies and the above-mentioned researches consider the masculinity of male refugees as a typical category in the form of constant hegemonic power against femininity. For this reason, it should primarily be accepted that there is no universal masculin ity that is always advantageous over femininity. The masculinity is also shaped and harmed by patriarchy. For masculinity is not a universal category, it is a dynamic gender identity shaped by historical and cultural conditions, just like femininity. In this respect, it is necessary to think of masculinity as a heterogeneous structure. Indeed, males with different conditions, just like women, may also be in exploited positions. Forced migration is one of these conditions. The forced migration process can make men and women suffer. Of course, it is wrong to say that in the process of forced migration, all male refugees could be in disadvantaged positions. However, social aid policies and researches seeing the masculinity as a universal category rather than a culturally constructed phenomenon, miss an important point: not all males can be equally advantageous in the patriarchal order. In other words, the idea that gender perceptions may have negative effects on men as much as they have on women should be a starting point for gaining further insights into the matter. Scholarly inquiries in this context should be aimed at a better understanding of the multiple structures of masculinity during the course of forced migration, and the inclusion of male refugees in social aid practices as visible actors.


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APA

Göktuna Yaylacı, F., & Çarpar, M.C. (2019). The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, 0(60), 61-85. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2019-0007


AMA

Göktuna Yaylacı F, Çarpar M C. The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society. 2019;0(60):61-85. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2019-0007


ABNT

Göktuna Yaylacı, F.; Çarpar, M.C. The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 60, p. 61-85, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Göktuna Yaylacı, Filiz, and Mehmet Can Çarpar. 2019. “The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender.” Journal of Economy, Culture and Society 0, no. 60: 61-85. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2019-0007


Chicago: Humanities Style

Göktuna Yaylacı, Filiz, and Mehmet Can Çarpar. The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender.” Journal of Economy, Culture and Society 0, no. 60 (Sep. 2021): 61-85. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2019-0007


Harvard: Australian Style

Göktuna Yaylacı, F & Çarpar, MC 2019, 'The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender', Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 60, pp. 61-85, viewed 16 Sep. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2019-0007


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Göktuna Yaylacı, F. and Çarpar, M.C. (2019) ‘The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender’, Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, 0(60), pp. 61-85. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2019-0007 (16 Sep. 2021).


MLA

Göktuna Yaylacı, Filiz, and Mehmet Can Çarpar. The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender.” Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 60, 2019, pp. 61-85. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2019-0007


Vancouver

Göktuna Yaylacı F, Çarpar MC. The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society [Internet]. 16 Sep. 2021 [cited 16 Sep. 2021];0(60):61-85. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2019-0007 doi: 10.26650/JECS2019-0007


ISNAD

Göktuna Yaylacı, Filiz - Çarpar, MehmetCan. The Invisible Actors of Forced Migration: Male Refugees in The Context of Representation and Gender”. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society 0/60 (Sep. 2021): 61-85. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2019-0007



TIMELINE


Submitted06.02.2019
Accepted14.10.2019
Published Online22.10.2019

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