A Medieval Crusader Castle: Tibnīn (Toron) 1099-1187Elif Ünal
The Crusades were one of the most important occurrences of the Middle Ages, deeply affecting world history and leaving its mark over a period of two centuries. This politically motivated military campaign began with the call of Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont on November 27, 1095 and enabled the establishment of Latin rule in the East. As a matter of fact, the Latins, who’d established states in Edessa and Antioch first in 1098 during the First Crusade, founded a kingdom by capturing Jerusalem on July 15, 1099, after which they began invading the Palestinian territories. Toron (now Tibnīn/Tebnīn), located in Upper Galilee, was one of the areas the Crusaders captured in this process, and Crusaders built Castle Toron there. Afterward, Toron was entrusted to Humphrey I of Toron, one of the nobles in Galilee, who transformed it into a lordship of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Toron was in a very important strategic position, and the castle built there gave the Franks many military, political, and economic advantages in the Crusader invasions and struggles against the Muslims in the region. The rulers of Tibnīn also played an important role in shaping the history of the Latin East. This study will discuss and chronologically evaluate the role of Toron and Toron Castle between 1099-1187 in the light of the information given by the sources.
Bir Ortaçağ Haçlı Kalesi: Tibnîn (Toron) 1099-1187Elif Ünal
Haçlı Seferleri, dünya tarihini derinden etkileyen ve iki asırlık bir sürece damgasını vuran Ortaçağ’ın en mühim hadiselerindendir. Papa II. Urbanus’un 27 Kasım 1095 tarihinde Clermont Konsili’nde yaptığı çağrı ile fiilen başlayan bu siyasî amaçlı askerî harekât Doğu’da Lâtin hâkimiyetinin kurulmasına imkân sağlamıştır. Nitekim Birinci Haçlı Seferi sırasında 1098 yılında önce Urfa ile Antakya’da devletler tesis eden Lâtinler, 15 Temmuz 1099’da Kudüs’ü zaptederek bir krallık kurmuş ve Filistin topraklarını işgale başlamışlardır. Bu süreçte Haçlıların eline geçen mevkilerden biri de Celîle bölgesinin kuzeyinde bulunan Tibnîn olmuş ve Haçlılar tarafından buraya Toron isimli bir kale inşa edilmiştir. Akabinde ise Tibnîn, asillerden Onfroi de Toron’a tevdi edilerek Kudüs Haçlı Krallığı’na bağlı bir lordluğa dönüştürülmüştür. Stratejik bakımdan oldukça mühim bir konumda yer alan Tibnîn ve burada inşa edilen kale, bölgedeki Haçlı istilalarında ve Müslümanlara karşı verilen mücadelelerde Franklara askerî, siyasî ve iktisadî bakımdan pek çok avantaj kazandırırken, Tibnîn hâkimleri de Lâtin Doğu tarihinin şekillenmesinde önemli bir rol oynamıştır. Bu çalışmada kaynakların verdiği bilgiler ışığında 1099-1187 yılları arasındaki süreçte Tibnîn ile Toron Kalesi’nin rolü kronolojik bir şekilde ele alınacak ve değerlendirilecektir.
This study aims to reveal the role and importance of Toron Castle, an important castle built by the Crusaders in the Eastern Mediterranean, from the end of 1105 when it was constructed until 1187. After the capture of Jerusalem on July 15, 1099, the Crusaders started an invasion in Galilee and advanced to Tibnīn, an important position of the region. At the end of 1105, a castle was built by Hugh of St. Omer, which the Crusaders named Toron. Toron Castle is located on the road connecting Tyre, Damascus, and Banias and was described as the first great castle established in Upper Galilee. The castle enabled the main road from Damascus to Tyre to be blocked. Due to Toron Castle and its strategically important location, the Crusaders gained control over the area stretching from Damascus to the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and were able to keep the regions north of Tyre and Galilee under pressure and control. Toron Castle became an important attack and defense base in the struggles against the regional Muslim forces. Toron did not just have military importance, however. The castle also served as a center around which the settlement developed, allowing it to serve multiple functions as a civil, administrative, and economic structure. When Hugh of St. Omer died shortly after the completion of the castle’s construction, King Baldwin I handed the castle’s administration over to the Crusader noble Humphrey I of Toron. Thus, Toron became one of the important lordships of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Toron played an important role for the Kingdom of Jerusalem because the land on which the castle was built contained highly fertile agricultural land with the surrounding climate favorable for agriculture. The fortress also controlled the trade route from Damascus to Tyre. In 1107 during the reign of Humphrey I of Toron, the fortress was attacked by the Governor of Tyre. However, the Muslims failed to capture the castle. The castle of Toron was effective at keeping the city of Tyre under control during this period and undertook an important task in the struggles against the Fāṭimids and Damascus. During the reign of Humphrey II of Toron, the castle became a regional fortified center in parallel with the growth of the lordship and played an effective role in defending the northern areas of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. During this period, the boundaries of the Lordship of Toron expanded to include Banias. Toron Castle also played an important role in defending Banias against Muslims. After the death of Humphrey II, Humphrey IV became the head of the lordship. During his reign, the Toron family lost their rule of Toron, with management of castle being transferred to the royal family. The chronicles record that Toron became an important tax collection center under the rule of the royal family and contributed to the economy of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. The castle and lordship of Toron continued to exist as an important center that played a role in shaping the administrative, military, economic, and social life of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the region until it was conquered by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn in 1187.