Research Article


DOI :10.26650/jos.1415793   IUP :10.26650/jos.1415793    Full Text (PDF)

A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective

Gulzar Ahmed Sohil

Jammu and Kashmir has a unique identity in the world because of its civilization, geographical structure and attractive natural scenery. This land has been very fertile in terms of knowledge and literature, having produced literary personalities like Kalhan, Sheikh Ul Alam, Lal Ded, Ghani Kashmiri, Allama Iqbal and countless others who have beautifully portrayed the various aspects of the nature of this land in their writings. In modern times, the voice of the environment is heard in every sphere of life but when anything makes presence in literature it has the greatest impact on society. When we study the modern Urdu ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir in the context of environmental criticism, we find that it is deep rooted in this land both on artistic and intellectual levels. In this ghazal, where on the one hand, attention has been paid to the sensitive environmental problems of modern times, including climate change, global warming, ecological balance, etc. On the other hand, the negative impact of environmental changes on natural capital can also be seen. Moreover, in these ghazals, where on the one hand the poets are seen fighting for the protection of the environment and civilization, on the other hand the ghazals also support the wilderness of nature and its free existence in order to raise the concept of environmental sensitivity among the people. These are the specific aspects of environmental literature.

DOI :10.26650/jos.1415793   IUP :10.26650/jos.1415793    Full Text (PDF)

ر مں ظ ن ا ت ید کے ق ن ت ی ت یا غ زل کا مطالعہ ماحول ردو ُ ید ُا م ج رکی د ی ش ج موں و ک

Gulzar Ahmed Sohil

ء تاےہ۔ہی رس ھ ک ت خ ت اودشکل رطفیت انمرظ یک وہج ےس اینپ یک رفنمد انش خ ومجں و ریمشکوپ ی داین ںیم اینپ ذہتبی،رغجاایفیئ س شاہ یلع دمہاین،خیش ااعلمل،لل دید،ینغ اکریمشی،عالہم ، ن ت کلہ زنیم ےن ڈنپ ززیخ یہ ےہ۔سج رس ب ےس یہ ملع و اد ےک وحاےل ےس تہب ز ںیم شیپ ت ادنا ں وک وخوصب ت ےک ونتمع ولہپ زنیم یک رطف ہدیپا ںیک وہنجں ےن اینپ رحتریوں ںیم اس رس اابقل او ہن اجےن ےنتک الل و وگ ج اًرکیت ےہ وت وہ امس ت ب ی ہ ےبعش ںیم انسیئ دیتی ےہ نکیل وکیئ یھب زیچ ج ب ب اد اک ریپنہ زدنیگ ےک ت یک دصا ایک ےہ۔جدید دو ںیم ویں وت اموحایل ت رممست رکیت ےہ۔ ج ب مہ ومجں و ریمشک یک جدید ُاُدو زغل اک اطمہعل اموحایلیت دیقنت ےک انترظ ںیم رکےت ںیہ وت اس زغل زیادہ ارثا رپ س ب ےس ت ےک اسحس ت رظن یت ںیہ۔ اس زغل ںیم اہجں ایک رطف جدید دو ںیم اموحایل زنیم ںیم ویپس یک ڑجںی ینف او رکفی دوونں وحطسں رپ اینپ رس لیوں ےس ی ن وریغہ یک رطف وتہج ذبمول رکوایئ ںیہ وت دورسی رطف اموحایلیت دبت بل واگنم،اموحایلیت وتا اسملئ نج ںیم،ومیمس دبتیلی،ولگ ت اوذہتبی شارعاموحایل ن زغولں ںیم اہجں ایک رطف زںی ا ت اک سکع یھب داھکی اجاتکس ےہ۔ عالوہ ا ت دقیت رسامےئ رپ تبث وہےن واےل یفنم ارثا ی حما زاداہن ووج د یک ت او ش ت یک وح وک ایک یہ ڑلی ںیم ِرپِو رکاس ےک ظفحت یک رتبیغ دےتی وہےئ رظن ےت ںیہ وت دورسی رطف زغل وگرطف ش ںیہ۔ ت ےک وصتوکُاُاھب ب ا اجےئ یہی اموحایلیت اد اموحایلیت دیقنت،ومجں و ریمشک،اموحایلیت وتا دیلکی اافل.

DOI :10.26650/jos.1415793   IUP :10.26650/jos.1415793    Full Text (PDF)

Çevre Eleştirisi Bağlamında Modern Urduca Cammu ve Keşmir Gazeli Üzerine Bir İnceleme

Gulzar Ahmed Sohil

Cammu ve Keşmir coğrafi yapısı ve müthiş doğal güzellikleriyle tüm dünyada ayrıcalıklı bir yere sahiptir. Bu topraklar ilk dönemlerden itibaren ilmî ve edebî açıdan oldukça verimli olmuştur. Pandit Kalhana, Şah Ali Hamedanî, Şeyh’ul-Âlem, Lal Did, Gani Keşmirî ve Allame İkbal gibi büyük şairler bu coğrafyanın doğal güzelliklerini çeşitli yönleriyle şiirlerinde ele almışlardır. Modern dönemde “Çevre dostu yaşam” her alanda duyulan bir tabir olmuştur. Ancak bu tabirin edebiyatta kullanılması toplum üzerinde daha geniş bir etki bırakmaktadır. Cammu ve Keşmir’de yazılan Urduca gazelleri çevre eleştirisi bağlamında ele aldığımızda bu gazellerin hem sanatsal hem de entelektüel düzeyde yazıldığı coğrafyadan izler taşıdığını görmekteyiz. Çağdaş bir gazelle bakıldığında bir yandan iklim değişikliği, küresel ısınma, ekolojik denge gibi çevre sorunlarına dikkat çekilirken diğer yandan çevresel değişimlerin olumsuz etkileri üzerinde durulmuştur; bir yandan şairlerin çevrenin ve medeniyetin korunması için mücadele ettiği görülürken, diğer yandan gazeller, insanlar arasında çevre duyarlılığı kavramını yükseltmek için doğanın özgür varlığını da dile getirmektedir. Bu çalışmada Cammu ve Keşmir’de yazılan Urduca gazeller çevre eleştirisi bağlamında ele alınacaktır.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Jammu and Kashmir with its natural beauty, distinct culture and geographic structure holds a unique place in the different regions of World, the native landscape always makes huge impact on the art and literature of any region. Literature is always considered the savior and preserver of art and culture. Modern age is an age of Science and Technology which has changed the fundamental values of modern society where eco-friendly culture has been replaced by new anthropocentric culture and every human is trying to earn more and more profit at the cost of nature. The industries are growing at an alarming rate which leads industrial mentality to develop and strengthen its footsteps in the contemporary world which somehow denies the value of nature. In present scenario the voices of environmental issues can be heard everywhere because it has become a serious concern of modern society. Literature cannot aloof from society and surroundings but when these issues make presence in literary genres, they make more impact than any other communicative tools, therefore literature played an important role in any revolution because when things are presented in a systematic and literary manner, they seem to be more genuine and reliable.

When we critically evaluate the literary genre of modern urdu ghazal of jammu and Kashmir we find literary figures like Hakeem Manzoor, Hamidi Kashmiri, Rafiq Raaz, Farooq Nazi, Hamdam Kashmiri, Pritpal singh Betaab and Taranum Reyaz who have depicted the native landscape with an intention to address the environmental issues of the contemporary world. They not only gave general description of regional nature but the voice of serious environmental issues can be heard in the poetic verses of modern urdu ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir. Since this ghazal flourished in the lap of nature therefore this genre extracted and polished it’s words from its surroundings. The poets have sensitized the general masses so that environment should be taken care off. 

Some writers portrayed the native landscape in the cultural context and some have celebrated the wilderness in their writings because the real picture of nature cannot be understood without wilderness. The modern poets of Jammu and Kashmir urdu ghazal are aware of their surroundings and have not given much attention to other literary movements like progressive writers movement and trends like modernism,postmodernism and other vision they were surrounded by. They have only portrayed what they have experienced in the real World, among the above mentioned poets every poet has depicted the landscape in their own style. 

Hakeem Manzoor has presented the native landscape in a cultural context even Hamadi Kashmiri appeared with the same intention or vision on the literary horizon of Jammu and Kashmir urdu ghazal. Hakeem Manzoor presented the exploited picture of natural resources in order to acquaint the world with the real picture of Jammu and Kashmir which is usually neglected in the history books of Jammu and Kashmir. Hakim Manzoor’s depiction of native landscape in the cultural context by using symbols and metaphors provides a wider picture of rich indian composite culture and this is something that differentiates him from Other poets. He uses symbols and metaphors like Chinar, saffron, apple,Deodar and rivers and lakes like Jhelum, Dal, aharbal and other cultural elements of environmental origin Kangri, Akhroot, Badaam etc. to inculcate eco consciousness among the people or readers so that the ‘culture and identity’ watered by sufis and rishis of Jammu and Kashmir can be saved. Hakim manzoor appears to be the fellow of nature and native landscape. Hamidi Kashmiri also presented the nature in cultural context through his poetry but he adopted a distinct style where he seems to feel the pain of native landscape like birds, trees etc. He strived to save nature in a soft and subdued language.

Nature without wilderness has no identity, this characteristic gives it a different identity and among above mentioned poets Rafiq Raaz seems to have adopted this theme of ghazal. He has made gap with native landscape in terms of culture and and he tried to solve the environmental issues at a larger level. He has not confined his pen to native landscape but it can be seen in the subconscious of the writer. He celebrates the wilderness in his poetry. Since centuries old prevention of natural environment is part and parcel of Jammu and Kashmir culture therefore hamdam Kashmiri,s ghazal is committed to preserve the nature at any cost and which demonstrates nature cannot be saved without the sacrifices. Along with Hakeem Manzoor and Hamidi Kashmiri Farooq Nazki also knitted a web between nature and culture in his poetry in which he deciphered that the destruction of nature is unbearable for the fascinating gardens because they are interlinked with each other. Here his poetry and vision seems to be deep rooted in culture and History of Jammu and Kashmir especially sufis.

Pritpal singh Betaab is a renowned modern poet of Jammu and Kashmir literary horizon, he presented the environmental issues in more effective way in his poetry where he diverts the attention of common masses towards judicious and sustainable use of natural resources. 

Above all, the poetess and fiction writer of modern age Taranum Reyaz has presented the nature with a distinct outlook because there is a vital connection between the woman and nature both have the quality to reproduce, on the one hand she presented the nature in a vulnerable and weak manner and on the other hand she intended and endeavored to make ecofriendly future where nature should be given the utmost care. She has comparatively presented the picture of past and present natural world to sensitize the common masses with an intention to preserve and protect nature. 

All the literary figures mentioned above have depicted nature with an intention to solve the regional and international environmental issues.They might have adopted different approaches but their crux lies in presenting and solving the environmental issues of the region. This paper will give new dimension to the modern Urdu literature and also yield new space and identity for Urdu literature of Jammu and Kashmir on the World literary horizon.


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References

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APA

Sohil, G.A. (2024). A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective. Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(44), 125-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1415793


AMA

Sohil G A. A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective. Journal of Oriental Studies. 2024;0(44):125-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1415793


ABNT

Sohil, G.A. A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective. Journal of Oriental Studies, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 44, p. 125-138, 2024.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Sohil, Gulzar Ahmed,. 2024. “A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 44: 125-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1415793


Chicago: Humanities Style

Sohil, Gulzar Ahmed,. A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 44 (May. 2024): 125-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1415793


Harvard: Australian Style

Sohil, GA 2024, 'A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective', Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 44, pp. 125-138, viewed 18 May. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1415793


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Sohil, G.A. (2024) ‘A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective’, Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(44), pp. 125-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1415793 (18 May. 2024).


MLA

Sohil, Gulzar Ahmed,. A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective.” Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 44, 2024, pp. 125-138. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1415793


Vancouver

Sohil GA. A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective. Journal of Oriental Studies [Internet]. 18 May. 2024 [cited 18 May. 2024];0(44):125-138. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1415793 doi: 10.26650/jos.1415793


ISNAD

Sohil, GulzarAhmed. A Study of Modern Urdu Ghazal of Jammu and Kashmir: An Ecocritical Perspective”. Journal of Oriental Studies 0/44 (May. 2024): 125-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1415793



TIMELINE


Submitted06.01.2024
Accepted18.02.2024
Published Online30.04.2024

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