Research Article


DOI :10.26650/jos.1189425   IUP :10.26650/jos.1189425    Full Text (PDF)

The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism

Zekai Kardaş

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was born in 1888 and played an important role in shaping India’s struggle for freedom. For this reason, his name has an important place in India’s history. Abul Kalam Azad was known for his sympathy and admiration of the Turks and additionally took an active role in raising awareness of Indian Muslims in the context of Ottoman-Indian relations. The Indian Muslims under British rule had anxiously been following the Ottoman Empire, which had faced troubling situations during the Crimean War, the 1887-1888 Ottoman-Russian War, the Battle of Tripoli, and the Balkan Wars, as Indian Muslims saw the Turks as their protector, especially due to the Ottoman claim to the Islamic Caliphate. During this period, some personalities such as Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, the brothers Muhammed Ali and Shauqat Ali, as well as Abul Kalam Azad attempted to raise awareness of the Indian Muslims by closely watching the situation of the Turks. To maintain this purpose, they began publishing as products of this idea the following newspapers: Al-Hilal was published by Abul Kalam Azad, Zamindar was published by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, and Comrade was published by Muhammed Ali. These newspapers later became very popular and were called the Freedom Newspapers. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad had a versatile personality and constantly provided news about the Turks through his newspaper al-Hilal. At the same time, he organized aid campaigns through al-Hilal in order to support the Turkish people. Al-Hilal soon became known throughout India through its fierce criticism of the British government. Published weekly, it soon became one of India’s best-selling Urdu newspapers. Abul Kalam Azad started a new understanding of journalism in the Indian subcontinent with his newspaper al-Hilal and was instrumental in gaining an identity for Indian Muslim journalism in particular.

DOI :10.26650/jos.1189425   IUP :10.26650/jos.1189425    Full Text (PDF)

کالم آزاد کا کردار ب ا وال ن ح ی کام مں موال ت ی واس ق تر فت کی اردو صحا

Zekai Kardaş

خالصه ہ م کردار یے م ں ا ن ی ل د ی ک ش ت جہد کو ت ج ان کی آزادی کی دو ن دوس ے ہ ن ن ہوں ئے، ا ی ہ دا و م ں پ کالم آزاد، ج و 1888ی ب ا اوال ن موال کالم آزاد، ج و ت ا ہے۔ اس کے ع ب الوہ، ا ول ق ام رکھ ہ م م یک ا ن ام ا ی ی خ م ں ان کا ت ار ت ان کی ن دوس ج ہ سے ہ یا۔ اسی و ادا ک ق ات کے ل ع ت ی ن ت ا ن دوس ی اور ہ ن ثما ے ع ن ن ھوں ں، ا ہے ی ت جے ا ن ت عر یف کے ل ی جے ا ی ہ مدردی اور ن پ ترکوں کے ل یے ا یا۔ ف عال کردار ادا ک یے م ں ن یدار کر ش عور کو ب نوں کے لما ی مس ن ت ا ن دوس ی ر م ں ہ ظ ن ا ت ن ا شواری کاسام ن گوں کے دوران د ج ق ان کی بل بلس اور نگ، طرا نگ، 93 کی روسی ج یا کی ج ن ی وں کو کر یم ثما دوسری طرف ع ش ان کن صورت پر ی تھ اس نی کے سا ی چ بڑی بے ت ھے، ی وی راج م ں ن برطا لمان ج و ی مس ن ت ا ن دوس ےہ س ج ہ تھا، اس و پڑا ا ن کر ا ن سے کہ موال ی ج یات ص ش خ ھ ت ھے۔ اسی دوران، چک تے ھ جم س ظ ف ن ا محا یہ کو اپ ن ثما نت ع ط ل ن کہ وہ لوگ س ھے ک ی و ت ی چ ھا کر ر ہے پ حال کا یرب سے ق ترکوں کے حاالت کو ں، م ہل ی ا ش ب ھی کالم آزاد ج ین م بں ا وال برادران، شوکت علی خ ان اور دمحم علی- ر علی ف ظ ارات م ں ب ی خ نے والے ا ہع و ئ ش ا ی ھے۔ اس دور مں ت شش کر ر ہے نے کی کو یدا کر یداری پ ی ی عوام م ب ن ت ا ن دوس یکھ کر ہ د ت ھے۔ شہور یڈ ب ہت م ن دار اور دمحم علی کا کامر خ ان کا زمی ر علی ف ظ ا ن کالم آزاد کا الہالل، موال باوال بارے ترکوں کے یعے ب ار الہالل کے ذر خ نے ا ں، ا پ یص ہ ت کے مالک ی ش خ ہ ی مہ گ ر یک کالم آزاد ج و کہ ا ب ا ا وال ن موال ترک ت اکہ ی ئ بھی چال مہم یعے امدادی ب ار کے ذر خ ے ا ن ن ہوں تھ ا ت ہھ ی سا ت ھے، اور سا تے ہ تے ر بیر ں د ی خ لسل مس م ں ی ج عوام کی مدد کی ا سکے۔ ے ن ہع و ئ ش ا تہ وار ف یا۔ ہ ش ہ ہور و گ بروں سے م خ ید کی ق ن ت ید ش د ی ن پ پر ا نوی حکومت برطا ت ان ب ی ھر م ں ن دوس الہالل ج ہ لد ی ہ یا۔ بن گ یک ارات م ں سے ا ب ی خ نے والے اردو ا خ ہت و ف رو یادہ واال الہالل ج ہ لد ی سب سے ز پر مسلم خ اص طور یا، غ از ک ہی م کا آ ف ت ی ئ ن فت کی د م ں صحا ن ی پاک و ہ ر ی غ برص تھ ے الہالل کے سا ن نہوں ج کالم آزاد باوال یا ہے ہ م کردار ادا ک یے م ں ا ن خ ت حاصل کر ن ا ش یک فت کے ل یے ا ی صحا ن ت ا ن دوس ہ ت ان ن دوس ٓ زاد، ہ فت، ا کلیدی الفاظ: اردو، ص

DOI :10.26650/jos.1189425   IUP :10.26650/jos.1189425    Full Text (PDF)

Urdu Gazeteciliğinin Gelişim ve İstikrarında Mevlana Ebû’l Kelâm Azâd’ın Rolü

Zekai Kardaş

1888 yılında doğan Mevlana Ebul Kelam Azad, Hindistan’ın özgürlük mücadelesinin şekillenmesinde önemli bir rol üstlenmiştir. Bu sebeple Hindistan tarihinde adı önemli bir yere sahiptir. Ayrıca Türklere duyduğu sempati ve hayranlıkla da tanınan Ebul Kelam Azad Osmanlı-Hindistan ilişkileri bağlamında özellikle Hint Müslümanlarının bilinçlenmesinde de aktif rol almıştır. Diğer yandan İngiliz yönetimi altında bulunan Hint Müslümanları Halifeliği elinde bulundurması yüzünden kendilerine hami olarak gördükleri Osmanlı İmparatorluğunun sırasıyla girdiği Kırım harbi, 93 Rus harbi, Trablus savaşı ve Balkan savaşları esnasında düştüğü sıkıntılı durumu endişeyle takip etmekteydiler. Bu dönemde, Ebul Kelam Azad’ın da aralarında bulunduğu Mevlana Zafer Ali Han ve Muhammed Ali-Şevket Ali kardeşler gibi bazı şahsiyetler özellikle Türklerin durumunu yakından takip ederek Hint halkını bilinçlendirmeye gayret gösteriyorlardı. Bu dönemde çıkan gazeteler arasında Ebul Kelam Azad’ın çıkardığı el-Hilal Gazetesi, Mevlana Zafer Ali Han’ın çıkardığı Zemindar gazetesi ve Muhammed Ali’nin çıkardığı Comrade gazetesi bu dönemde yayınlanan en ünlü gazetelerdendir. Çok yönlü bir kişiliğe sahip olan Mevlana Ebul Kelam Azad bu dönemde çıkardığı el-Hilal adlı gazete ile sürekli Türkler hakkında haberlere yer veriyor ve aynı zamanda Türk halkına destek olmak amacıyla gazete aracılığıyla yardım kampanyaları düzenliyordu. İngiliz hükümetine karşı yaptığı şiddetli eleştiri haberleriyle el-Hilal kısa zamanda tüm Hindistan’da bilinir hale gelmişti. Haftalık olarak basılan el-Hilal kısa zamanda Hindistan’ın en çok satan Urduca gazetelerinden biri haline gelmişti. El-Hilal gazetesi ile Hint-Alt kıtasında yeni bir gazetecilik anlayışı başlatan Ebul Kelam Azad özellikle Müslüman Hint gazeteciliğinin bir kimlik kazanmasına vesile olmuştur.

Keywords: UrduGazetecilikAzadHindistan

EXTENDED ABSTRACT


After the British colonized the Indian subcontinent, the Muslims of the region regarded the Caliph as a spiritual backing power, so they increased their loyalty to the Ottoman Empire and the Caliph. They anxiously watched the situations the Ottoman Empire faced during its final era and tried every possible way to help the Ottoman Empire. The Indian people who intensely watched the news about the Tripoli and Balkan Wars through the Muslim Indian Press organized nationwide donation campaigns to help the Ottoman Empire financially. One of the most important newspapers of this period was al-Hilal, which started its publication life on July 13, 1912 under the editorship of Abul Kalam Azad and supported the Ottoman Empire with its publications. News about the Ottoman Empire and the Turks were regularly published in the newspaper under such headlines as “Heroes of Tripoli Gaza,” “Ottoman Affairs,” “Istanbul Post,” and “Heroes of Balkan War.” Al-Hilal was generally published to reflect the political views of Abul Kalam Azad and often included letters from readers and open discussions. The newspaper made its main impact with its publications on British colonialism and its support for the Ottoman Empire. Published at a medium size of 18-20, al-Hilal was meticulously printed. In terms of the fonts used and page design, al-Hilal was printed so as to be more pleasing to the public compared to the other newspapers of the period. Azad stated that al-Hilal should give a strong newspaper image through both its content as well as its appearance. Abul Kalam Azad was among the most important figures in the history of India in the 20th century with his pan-Islamist thoughts and active struggle for India’s independence. He used the pseudonym of Azad to reflect his views on the freedom struggles of oppressed nations, as well as to express the level he’d reached in his own world of thought. Azad supported the Ottoman Empire and the caliphate with great courage and was also among those who praised the establishment of the Turkish Republic. He evaluated the abolition of the caliphate as the end of the dualism seen since the establishment of Türkiye. According to Azad, the political and religious authority of the caliph is a whole and is unlike the papacy in Catholicism. The caliphate is the power of attorney, and this power of attorney does not necessarily have to be represented by a person. The most powerful Muslim state naturally assumed the caliphate. Therefore, the caliphate is still in the hands of the Turkish state. Azad was also influenced by the Pan-Islamic ideas of Jamaluddin Afghani. Afghani said that the problems faced by the Islamic world today stemmed from a lack of political unity. The reinterpretation of Islamic law and reorganization of Islamic institutions would only be possible in a pan-Islamic society, and this society would be under the symbolic rule of a single and universal caliph. For this purpose, Azad published a series of articles in the weekly magazines al-Hilal and al-Balagh. The conferences and communiqués he gave after World War I in particular saw him touch heavily upon the issue of Pan-Islamism. Due to Maulana Abul Kalam Azad’s versatile personality, he produced successful works in many different fields. He was an enthusiastic nationalist who believed that Indian Muslims should unite with Hindus and fight for independence. He took steps in this direction together with Hindus and attempted to enable people to develop the cultural and educational fields. He achieved great success in the fields of literature and journalism, with many of the articles in al-Hilal having been written under the name of Abul Kalam Azad.


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APA

Kardaş, Z. (2023). The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism. Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(42), 473-484. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1189425


AMA

Kardaş Z. The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism. Journal of Oriental Studies. 2023;0(42):473-484. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1189425


ABNT

Kardaş, Z. The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism. Journal of Oriental Studies, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 42, p. 473-484, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Kardaş, Zekai,. 2023. “The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 42: 473-484. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1189425


Chicago: Humanities Style

Kardaş, Zekai,. The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism.” Journal of Oriental Studies 0, no. 42 (Jul. 2024): 473-484. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1189425


Harvard: Australian Style

Kardaş, Z 2023, 'The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism', Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 42, pp. 473-484, viewed 13 Jul. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1189425


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Kardaş, Z. (2023) ‘The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism’, Journal of Oriental Studies, 0(42), pp. 473-484. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1189425 (13 Jul. 2024).


MLA

Kardaş, Zekai,. The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism.” Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 0, no. 42, 2023, pp. 473-484. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1189425


Vancouver

Kardaş Z. The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism. Journal of Oriental Studies [Internet]. 13 Jul. 2024 [cited 13 Jul. 2024];0(42):473-484. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1189425 doi: 10.26650/jos.1189425


ISNAD

Kardaş, Zekai. The Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Development and Stability of Urdu Journalism”. Journal of Oriental Studies 0/42 (Jul. 2024): 473-484. https://doi.org/10.26650/jos.1189425



TIMELINE


Submitted14.10.2022
Accepted29.01.2023
Published Online28.04.2023

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