Journal of Oriental Studies – Şarkiyat Mecmuası, which is the official publication of Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, the Oriental Research Center is an open access, peer-reviewed, multilingual, scholarly and international journal published two times a year (April and October) . It was founded in 1956.

Journal of Oriental Studies aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge in the field of Eastern languages and literatures by publishing original articles, reviews, scientific criticism, book review and translation articles.

The journal considers manuscripts on all aspects of Eastern languages and literatures. Subject areas of interest include language and literature, history, history of literature, art and culture concerning Eastern languages and literatures. The target audience of the journal is academics, researchers, professionals, students and related professional, academic institutions and organizations. The publication languages of the journal are Turkish, English, German, French, Chinese, Hindi, Persian, Arabic, Korean and Urdu.
Editor-in-Chief
Assist. Prof. Leyla Yakupoğlu Boran, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye

Co-Editor-in-Chief
Assist. Prof. Lale Aydın Tunç, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye

Section Editor
Assoc. Prof. Zekai Kardaş, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Assist. Prof. Leyla Yakupoğlu Boran, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Assist. Prof. Lale Aydın Tunç, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Assist. Prof. Nihat Değirmenci, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Assist. Prof. Eun Kyung Jeong, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Assist. Prof. Bilal Alpaydın, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye

Editorial Assistant
Res. Assist. Yaşar Yeşim Amaç, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Res. Assist. Esra Altay, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye

English Language Editor
Lecturer Alan James Newson, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Lecturer Elizabeth Mary Earl, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye

Editorial Board Member
Prof. Abdullah Kızılcık, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Ali Bulut, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Ali Güzelyüz, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Davoud Sparham, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Eyüp Sarıtaş, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Halil Toker, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Halil İbrahim Kaçar, Marmara Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Hicabi Kırlangıç, Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkiye
Prof. Hüseyin Yazıcı, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Mehmet Atalay, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Mehmet Yavuz, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Prof. Muhammad Kamran, University of the Punjab, Punjab, Pakistan
Prof. Nimet Yıldırım, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum, Turkiye
Prof. Nuriye Bilik, Selçuk Üniversitesi, Konya, Turkiye
Prof. Rahman Moshtagh Mehr, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Mamakan, İran
Prof. Sırrı Göksel Türközü, Erciyes Üniversitesi, Kayseri, Turkiye
Prof. Sobhi Boustani, Inalco University, Paris, France
Prof. Sofia Yousuf, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan
Prof. Yousuf Khushk, Pakistan Academy of Letters, Islamabad, Pakistan
Prof. Yu Wang, Xiamen University, Fujin, China
Prof. Zia-ul Hassan, University of the Punjab, Punjab, Pakistan
Assoc. Prof. Fatemeh Parchekani, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
Assoc. Prof. Tao Zan, Peking University, Beijing, China
Assoc. Prof. Zekai Kardaş, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Assist. Prof. Ahmed Elwany, Sohar University, Sohar, Oman

Journal of Oriental Studies aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge in the field of Eastern languages and literatures by publishing original research articles, reviews, scientific criticism, book review and translation articles.

The journal considers manuscripts on all aspects of Eastern languages and literatures. Subject areas of interest include language and literature, history, history of literature, language education-training and teaching, art and culture concerning Eastern languages and literatures. The target audience of the journal is academics, researchers, professionals, students and related professional, academic institutions and organizations. The publication languages of the journal are Turkish, English, Chinese, Hindi, Persian, Arabic, Korean and Urdu.


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The journal is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparency-and-best-practice-scholarly-publishing

The subjects covered in the manuscripts submitted to the Journal for publication must be in accordance with the aim and scope of the Journal. Only those manuscripts approved by every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Changing the name of an author (omission, addition or order) in papers submitted to the Journal requires written permission of all declared authors.

Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unethical behaviors. All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This also contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication.

Plagiarism
Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. If plagiarism/self-plagiarism will be found authors will be informed. Editors may resubmit manuscript for similarity check at any peer-review or production stage if required. High similarity scores may lead to rejection of a manuscript before and even after acceptance. Depending on the type of article and the percentage of similarity score taken from each article, the overall similarity score is generally expected to be less than 15 or 20%.

Double Blind Peer-Review
After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by the editors-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope. The editor provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles and hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

The journal is an open access journal and all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Except for commercial purposes, users are allowed to read, download, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

The open access articles in the journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.

All expenses of the journal are covered by the Istanbul University. Processing and publication are free of charge with the journal. There is no article processing charges or submission fees for any submitted or accepted articles.

Authors publishing with the journal retain the copyright to their work licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ) and grant the Publisher non-exclusive commercial right to publish the work. CC BY-NC 4.0 license permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Editor should consider publishing correction if minor errors that do not effect the results, interpretations and conclusions of the published paper are detected. Editor should consider retraction if major errors and/or misconduction that invalidate results and conclusions are detected.

Editor should consider issuing an expression of concern if there is evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors; there is evidence that the findings are not reliable and institutions of the authors do not investigate the case or the possible investigation seems to be unfair or nonconclusive.

The guidelines of COPE and ICJME are taken into consideration regarding correction, retractions or expression of concern.

To guarantee that all papers published in the journal are maintained and permanently accessible, articles are stored in Dergipark which serves as a  national archival web site and at the same time permits LOCKSS to  collect, preserve, and serve the content.

Additionally, authors are encouraged to self-archive the final PDF version of their articles in open electronic archives with  that conform to standards of Open Archives Initiative (https://www.openarchives.org/). Authors should provide a link from the deposited version to the URL of IUPress journal website.

Journal of Oriental Studies is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), to access the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparencyand-best-practice-scholarly-publishing

All parties involved in the publishing process (Editors, Reviewers, Authors and Publisher) are expected to agree on the following ethical principles.

All submissions must be original, unpublished (including as full text in conference proceedings), and not under the review of any other publication synchronously. Each manuscript is reviewed by one of the editors and at least two referees under double-blind peer review process. Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unethical behaviors.

All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This also contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication. In accordance with the code of conduct we will report any cases of suspected plagiarism or duplicate publishing.

Journal of Oriental Studies adheres to the highest standards in research ethics and follows the principles of international research ethics as defined below. The authors are responsible for the compliance of the manuscripts with the ethical rules.

  • Principles of integrity, quality and transparency should be sustained in designing the research, reviewing the design and conducting the research.
  • The research team and participants should be fully informed about the aim, methods, possible uses and requirements of the research and risks of participation in research.
  • The confidentiality of the information provided by the research participants and the confidentiality of the respondents should be ensured. The research should be designed to protect the autonomy and dignity of the participants.
  • Research participants should participate in the research voluntarily, not under any coercion.
  • Any possible harm to participants must be avoided. The research should be planned in such a way that the participants are not at risk.
  • The independence of research must be clear; and any conflict of interest must be disclosed.
  • In experimental studies with human subjects, written informed consent of the participants who decide to participate in the research must be obtained. In the case of children and those under wardship or with confirmed insanity, legal custodian’s assent must be obtained.
  • If the study is to be carried out in any institution or organization, approval must be obtained from this institution or organization.
  • In studies with human subject, it must be noted in the method’s section of the manuscript that the informed consent of the participants and ethics committee approval from the institution where the study has been conducted have been obtained.

It is authors’ responsibility to ensure that the article is in accordance with scientific and ethical standards and rules. And authors must ensure that submitted work is original. They must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere or is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere, in any language. Applicable copyright laws and conventions must be followed. Copyright material (e.g. tables, figures or extensive quotations) must be reproduced only with appropriate permission and acknowledgement. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources must be appropriately credited and referenced.

All the authors of a submitted manuscript must have direct scientific and academic contribution to the manuscript. The author(s) of the original research articles is defined as a person who is significantly involved in “conceptualization and design of the study”, “collecting the data”, “analyzing the data”, “writing the manuscript”, “reviewing the manuscript with a critical perspective” and “planning/ conducting the study of the manuscript and/or revising it”. Fund raising, data collection or supervision of the research group are not sufficient roles to be accepted as an author. The author(s) must meet all these criteria described above. The order of names in the author list of an article must be a codecision and it must be indicated in the Copyright Agreement Form. The individuals who do not meet the authorship criteria but contributed to the study must take place in the acknowledgement section. Individuals providing technical support, assisting writing, providing a general support, providing material or financial support are examples to be indicated in acknowledgement section.

All authors must disclose all issues concerning financial relationship, conflict of interest, and competing interest that may potentially influence the results of the research or scientific judgment.

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published paper, it is the author’s obligation to promptly cooperate with the Editor to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. He/She provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication, and must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers, and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by editor-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

The editor hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for double-blind peer review evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. He/She provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication, and must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers, and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by Editor-in-Chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors and ensures a fair double-blind peer review of the selected manuscripts.​
The selected manuscripts are sent to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and publication decision is given by Editor-in-Chief upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers’ judgments must be objective. Reviewers’ comments on the following aspects are expected while conducting the review.

- Does the manuscript contain new and significant information?

- Does the abstract clearly and accurately describe the content of the manuscript?

- Is the problem significant and concisely stated?

- Are the methods described comprehensively?

- Are the interpretations and consclusions justified by the results?

- Is adequate references made to other Works in the field?

- Is the language acceptable?

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees is important.

Publication Rules

1. Journal of Oriental Studies is prepeared by Istanbul University, Faculity of Letters, the Oriental Research Center. The first number was issued in Ankara in 1956. Since 2007 it is published as a peer-reviewed journal in January and December twice a year.

2. Journal of Oriental Studies accepts articels in the fields of Orientalism, edition critiques of hand writing manuscripts, scientific critiques, book reviews and translations of the articles.

3. The offical language of the journal is Turkish. If the publication commitee agrees, the articles in Western languages such as English, French, German not exceeding one-third of the existing

articles and the articles in Eastern languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu not exceeding 25 pages can be published. Submission of an article, or other item, implies that it has not been published elsewhere.

4. The articles that are accepted by journal publication commitee are sent to the referees among three diffrent universities. At least two referees must agree to publish the article. If the referees decide to revise the article, then the authors should send mostly in 15 days. Wheter published or not, the writings that submitted to our journal don’t return to the authors.

5. The author agrees that he has transfered the copyright of his published article to Istanbul University, Dean of Faculty of Letters and he must sign one copy of the “publising permit” document and three copies of” the copyright and deed of assignment” document and send us.

6. Images such as the photographs, maps, diagrams, archieve documents should be submitted as avaliable for publishing.

7. For translation writings the original copy of the article in the foreign language should be submitted. The full bibliographical information (name of the journal, the author of the article, publication place, publication year, volume, number, and pages) of the article must be given.

8. Writers’ institutional affilications, contact informations especially gsm numbers, e-mail addresses must be provided.

9. WORD and PDF files ofthe articles will be uploaded to the web address below: https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/iusarkiyat

10. The responsibility of the opinions in the articles and writings published belongs to the authors.

1. The articles written in Turkish of Turkey, except special uses, ought to be befitted to Spelling Dictionary by Turkish Language Association in terms of spelling rules. The writings must be expressed clearly in terms of scientific dimensions.

2. Title: It should describe the article and reflect the basic concepts, discussions and the main argument of the article. Turkish title should be written in bold, 11 point size, Times New Roman; English title should be 10 point size, bold, Times New Roman. Arabic, Persian and Urdu title should be in bold, 11 point size, Traditional Arabic, in the middle under the English title. It should not exceed 12 words.

3. Author’s name and address: The name and surname of author under two lines of title, in the right side, right justified. An Asteriks symbol should be added at the end of the author’s surname as a footpoint, and include the author’s academic title, and e-mail address (9 points, justified) . [Prof. Dr., Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Arabic Language and Literature Chair, ORCID:…….., (……@......)].

4. Abstract: It must contain a short summary of the main parts (entry, evidence, method, argument, result and proposal) of the article. It should provide the reader to modify the content of the article in a short time and to decide if he needs to read the whole article or not. The given information should not exceed one sentence. The evidences and the resolution part may consist of more than one sentence. The sentences must be clear and understandable and must be written in the past tense. In the abstract, there should not be any tables, illustrations, quotations and references.

Turkish abstract should be at the beginning of the article text following the title, between 200-250 words, 10 point size, right and left 10 mm spaced and justified. English abstract should follow. Turkish abstract. If the article is written in a different language from these two languages, the third abstract should be prepared in the relevant language by the same rules.

5. Keywords: should be given following the abstract written in Turkish, English and in the relevant language if any. Keywords should be up to 5 words and should provide access to the article.

6. Article Text: Articles should be submitted as Microsoft Word, Word 98 or higher versions documents. The text should be written in Times New Roman, 11 point size, at 1 line spacing. The articles in Arabic, Persian and Urdu should be written in Traditional Arabic, 11 point size, at 1 line spacing . The page size should be 165X240, 20 mm space from the right and left page sides, 30 mm from the bottom, 35 mm from the top of the page. The paragraph indentation should be 5 mm.

7. Titles in the article: Subtitles should be 11 point size and letter/number system should be based on. The first letter of the each Word in the title should be capital.

8. Informative Abstract: It has the same characteristics with abstract basically, but it is different from the abstract in terms of the length and details. It gives more detailed information than the abstract. The length of the summary should be %10-15 of the article. Tables and diagrams can take place in the summary. It should be at the end of the article and should contain the aim, argument, method, evidence and result of the article as it is in the abstract. The given information should be more detailed in comparision with the abstract. Any evidence and result that does not take place in the article also should not take place in the summary. In the summary, there should not be any references to the article text.

9. Photograph, illustrations and tables: The photographs, illustrations and tables that take place in the text should not exceed the signified page sizes and be in the suitable dpi resolution for publishing. Each photograph,illustration and table should have a number and reference. If it is more than one, numbers should be given.

10. First page header in the article: İ.Ü. ŞARKİYAT MECMUASI SAYI…(201..-1/2) The pages of the artical in the journal should be written.

11. Left header in the article: The name of the article should be written.

12. Right Header in the article: Author’s name/ ŞARKİYAT MECMUASI SAYI…(201..-1/2) the pages of the artical in the journal should be written.

13. Footnotes/ Quotations and References: Footnotes should be given automatically in the MS Word program at the foot of each relevant page as 9 point size and justified. Bibliographical references should be given in full at the first mention in the notes and in the second mention a.g.e. (mentioned work) and a.g.m (mentioned article) abbreviations should be used thereafter page number/numbers should be written. The footnotes must be arranged in the examples mentioned below: In the books: Names of the author/authors, the Book’s name, translator/investigator’s name if any, volume (vol.), publication city: publication place, publication year, page numbers (p.)

In the articles: Name of the author, “title of article” (using quotation marks), name of the journal, Volume (Vol.), Number (No.), city of publication: place of publication, year of publication and page number (p.). If there is no publication place and year, abbrevitations “t.y.” (without date), “y.y.” (without place) should be used. After the web pages, the access date must be added in parantheses.nFootnotes should be typed in the form of the following examples:

Journal of Oriental Studies - Şarkiyat Mecmuası has adopted the “notes and bibliography” documentation system preferred by many in the humanities, including those in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, a bibliography.

Authors who would send proposals to the journal are kindly invited to follow the examples given below when writing the footnotes and compiling the bibliography. These examples are borrowed from the Chicago Manual of Style (http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-1.html). A few more examples have also been added. Further information and numerous examples about the “notes and bibliography” system are available at the 14th and 15th chapters of the Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition).

A bibliography is needed at the end of research (original) articles, review articles and articles in translation. It should include all sources given in footnotes, captions and appendixes. The bibliography can include separate sections such as archival, manuscript, secondary, and/or electronic sources. Secondary sources are listed after the author’s name. When referring to archival material and manuscripts please note the name of the library and the collection, number and date of the document used if available.

Authors who do not have surnames (i.e. Salih Zeki), should be listed according to their first names: Salih Zeki should enter the bibliography under the letter S. Authors with surnames are listed after their surnames (i.e. Adıvar, A. Adnan).

Examples:

fn (first note), sn (subsequent/short notes), bib (bibliography).

Book, one author

fn
 Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.

sn
 Smith, Swing Time, 320.

bib
 Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.

Book, two authors

fn Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.

sn Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.

bib Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.

Chapter or other part of an edited book

In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.

fn Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.

sn Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.

bib Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.

fn John D’Agata, ed., The Making of the American Essay (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177- 78.

sn D’Agata, American Essay, 182.

bib D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.

Translated book


fn Jhumpa Lahiri, In Other Words, trans. Ann Goldstein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016), 146.
sn Lahiri, In Other Words, 184.
bib Lahiri, Jhumpa. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016.

E-book

For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit).

fn Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.

sn Austen, Pride and Prejudice, chap. 14.

bib Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.

fn Brooke Borel, The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 92, ProQuest Ebrary.

sn Borel, Fact-Checking, 104–5.

bib Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. ProQuest Ebrary.

fn Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

sn Kurland and Lerner, Founders’ Constitution, chap. 4, doc. 29.

bib Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

fn Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627, http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

sn Melville, Moby-Dick, 722–23.

bib Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

Journal article

In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins

https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

fn Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

sn Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.

bib Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

fn Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.

sn LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.

bib LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.

fn Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.

sn Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.

bib Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.

fn Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465,

https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.

sn Bay et al., “Predicting Responses,” 466.

bib Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures,” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.

News or magazine article

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

fn Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times, March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

sn Manjoo, “Snap.”

bib Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

fn Rebecca Mead, “The Prophet of Dystopia,” New Yorker, April 17, 2017, 43.

sn Mead, “Dystopia,” 47

bib Mead, Rebecca. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.

fn Tanya Pai, “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps,” Vox, April 11, 2017, http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.

sn Pai, “History of Peeps.”

bib Pai, Tanya. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.

fn Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post, July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic

sn Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”

bib Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.

Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.

Eduardo B (Los Angeles), March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo, “Snap.”

Book review

fn Michiko Kakutani, “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges,” review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith, New York Times, November 7, 2016.

sn Kakutani, “Friendship.”

bib Kakutani, Michiko. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.

Encyclopaedia entry

fn Mogens Herman Hansen, “Athenian Democracy,” The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed. (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996).

sn Hansen, “Athenian Democracy.”

Bib Hansen, Mogens Herman. “Athenian Democracy.” The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Interview

fn Kory Stamper, “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017, audio, 35:25, http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.

sn Stamper, interview.

bib Stamper, Kory. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.

Thesis or dissertation

fn Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.

sn Rutz, “King Lear,” 158.

bib Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013.

Paper presented at a meeting of a conferenc
e

fn Rachel Adelman, “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition” (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009).

sn Adelman, “Such Stuff as Dreams.”

bib Adelman, Rachel. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009.

Manuscripts

fn Feyzi, Muhadarat-ı Feyzi, Istanbul, Istanbul University Rare Books and Manuscripts Library, MS T6833, 48a.

sn Feyzi, Muhadarat-ı Feyzi, MS T6833, 51b.

bib Feyzi, Muhadarat-ı Feyzi, Istanbul, Istanbul University Rare Books and Manuscripts Library, MS T6833, 1a-70b.

fn Salih b. Nasrullah, Ghayat al-itqan fi tabdir badan al-insan,Istanbul, Süleymaniye Library, MS Ayasofya 3682, 26a.

sn Salih b. Nasrullah, Ghayat al-itqan, MS Ayasofya 3682, 23b.

bib Salih b. Nasrullah, Ghayat al-itqan fi tabdir badan al-insan,Istanbul,Süleymaniye Library, MS Ayasofya 3682, 1a-311a. Copied on 10 Rabi I 1135 (19 December 1722).

Archival documents

fn Ottoman Archives of the Turkish Prime Ministry (Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi, BOA), Cevdet Askeriye (C.AS.) 71/3352, 9 Şevval 1211 (7 Nisan 1797).

sn BOA, C.AS. 71/3352.

bib Ottoman Archives of the Turkish Prime Ministry (Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi, BOA). Cevdet Askeriye (C. AS) 71/3352, 9 Şevval 1211 (7 Nisan 1920).

fn
 Topkapı Palace Museum Archives(Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Arşivi, TSMA), E. 3202-2=597-2-7.

sn TSMA, E. 3202-2=597-2-7.

bibTopkapı Palace Museum Archives(Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Arşivi, TSMA). E. 3202-2=597-2-7.

Website content

fn Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

sn Bouman, “Black Hole.”

bib Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

fn “Privacy Policy,” Privacy & Terms, Google, last modified April 17, 2017, https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

sn Google, “Privacy Policy.”

bib Google. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

fn “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017, https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.

sn “Yale Facts.”

bib Yale University. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.

Personal communication

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.

fn sn Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.

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