Research Article

DOI :10.26650/JPLC2019-0001   IUP :10.26650/JPLC2019-0001    Full Text (PDF)

Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors

Kerryn BellScott A. MathersDale M. Lındekugel

Recidivism after incarceration is a fundamental concern for the criminal justice system. Although men remain the largest percentage of the prison population, women are entering prison at an increasing frequency. Insufficient research has looked at the influence of prison protective and risk factors on recidivism by gender or any theoretical model to consider this increase in the female prison population. Using data from a large western state in the USA, all male and female inmates incarcerated from 2009 through 2011 are evaluated in terms of protective (education, programming, community ties, relationship status) and risk factors (race/ethnicity, age, homelessness, prison conduct, gang membership, prison sentence length and type) associated with their initial incarceration or recidivism. The findings and implications are subsequently discussed.

Keywords: PrisonGenderRecidivism
DOI :10.26650/JPLC2019-0001   IUP :10.26650/JPLC2019-0001    Full Text (PDF)

Cinsiyet ve Cezaevi Koşulları Bakımından Tekerrür: Koruyucu Faktörler ve Risk Faktörlerinin Etkisi

Kerryn BellScott A. MathersDale M. Lındekugel


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Bell, K., Mathers, S., & Lındekugel, D. (2019). Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, 7(2), 185-211.


Bell K, Mathers S, Lındekugel D. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology. 2019;7(2):185-211.


Bell, K.; Mathers, S.; Lındekugel, D. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, [Publisher Location], v. 7, n. 2, p. 185-211, 2019.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Bell, Kerryn, and Scott A. Mathers and Dale M. Lındekugel. 2019. “Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors.” Journal of Penal Law and Criminology 7, no. 2: 185-211.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Bell, Kerryn, and Scott A. Mathers and Dale M. Lındekugel. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors.” Journal of Penal Law and Criminology 7, no. 2 (Jul. 2024): 185-211.

Harvard: Australian Style

Bell, K & Mathers, S & Lındekugel, D 2019, 'Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors', Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 185-211, viewed 20 Jul. 2024,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Bell, K. and Mathers, S. and Lındekugel, D. (2019) ‘Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors’, Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, 7(2), pp. 185-211. (20 Jul. 2024).


Bell, Kerryn, and Scott A. Mathers and Dale M. Lındekugel. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors.” Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, vol. 7, no. 2, 2019, pp. 185-211. [Database Container],


Bell K, Mathers S, Lındekugel D. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology [Internet]. 20 Jul. 2024 [cited 20 Jul. 2024];7(2):185-211. Available from: doi: 10.26650/JPLC2019-0001


Bell, Kerryn - Mathers, Scott A. - Lındekugel, Dale M.. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors”. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology 7/2 (Jul. 2024): 185-211.


Last Revision22.07.2019
Published Online27.09.2019


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