Research Article


DOI :10.26650/JPLC2019-0001   IUP :10.26650/JPLC2019-0001    Full Text (PDF)

Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors

Kerryn BellScott A. MathersDale M. Lındekugel

Recidivism after incarceration is a fundamental concern for the criminal justice system. Although men remain the largest percentage of the prison population, women are entering prison at an increasing frequency. Insufficient research has looked at the influence of prison protective and risk factors on recidivism by gender or any theoretical model to consider this increase in the female prison population. Using data from a large western state in the USA, all male and female inmates incarcerated from 2009 through 2011 are evaluated in terms of protective (education, programming, community ties, relationship status) and risk factors (race/ethnicity, age, homelessness, prison conduct, gang membership, prison sentence length and type) associated with their initial incarceration or recidivism. The findings and implications are subsequently discussed.

Keywords: PrisonGenderRecidivism
DOI :10.26650/JPLC2019-0001   IUP :10.26650/JPLC2019-0001    Full Text (PDF)

Cinsiyet ve Cezaevi Koşulları Bakımından Tekerrür: Koruyucu Faktörler ve Risk Faktörlerinin Etkisi

Kerryn BellScott A. MathersDale M. Lındekugel

Özet

PDF View

References

  • Bales, W. & Mears, D. (2008). Inmate social ties and the transition to society: does visitation reduce recidivism? Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 45, 287–321. google scholar
  • Baradon, T., Fonagy, P., Kata, L., Sleed, M. (2008). New beginnings: an experienced-based programme addressing the attachment relationship between mothers and their babies in prison. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 34(2), 240–258. google scholar
  • Barrick, K., Lattimore, P., & Visher, C. (2014). Reentering women: the impact of social ties on long-term recidivism. The Prison Journal, 94(3), 279–304. google scholar
  • Bayse, D., Allgood, S., & Van Wyk, P. (1991). Family life education: an effective tool for prisoner rehabilitation. Family Relations, 40(3), 245–257. google scholar
  • Belknap, J. (1996). The invisible woman: gender, crime, and justice. Belmont, CA, Wadsworth. google scholar
  • Benda, B. (2005). Gender differences in life-course theory of recidivism: a survival analysis. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 49(3), 325–342. google scholar
  • Berg, M. & Huebner, B. (2010). Reentry and the ties that bind: an examination of socialties, employment, and recidivism. Justice Quarterly, 28(2), 382–410. google scholar
  • Bloom, B. & Covington, S. (1998) Gender specific programming for female offenders: what is it and why is it important? Paper presented at the 50th annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Washington, DC. google scholar
  • Brewster, D. & Sharp, S. (2002). Educational programs and recidivism in Oklahoma: another look. The Prison Journal, 82(3), 314–334. google scholar
  • Calhoun, S., Messina, N., Cartier, J., & Torres, S. (2010). Implementing gender-responsive treatment for women in prison: client and staff perspectives. Federal Probation, 74(3), 27–33. google scholar
  • Cao, L., Zhao, J., & Van Dine S. (1997). Prison disciplinary tickets: a test of the deprivation and importation models. Journal of Criminal Justice, 25(2), 103–113. google scholar
  • Casey-Acevedo, K., Bakken, T., & Karle, A. (2004). Children visiting mothers in prison: the effect on mothers behavior and Disciplinary Adjustment. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 37, 418–430. google scholar
  • Cobbina, J., Huebner, B., & Berg, M. (2012). Men, women, and post release offending: an examination of the nature of the link between relational ties and recidivism. Crime & Delinquency, 58(3), 331–361. google scholar
  • Cochran, J., Mears, D., Bales, W., & Stewart, E. (2014). Does inmate behavior affect post-release offending? Investigating the misconduct-recidivism relationship among youth and adults. Justice Quarterly 31(6), 1044–1073. google scholar
  • Collins, R. (2010). The effect of gender on violent and nonviolent recidivism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 675–684. google scholar
  • Davis, S. (1985). Recidivism among offenders released from incarceration in 1982. Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Department of Corrections google scholar
  • Dooley, B., Seals, A., & Skarbek, D. (2014). The effect of prison gang membership on recidivism. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(3), 267–275. google scholar
  • Education Services Newsletter. (2009). Issue II. NDOC. Web. Spring, 2009: 2–3. google scholar
  • Esperian, J. (2010). The effect of prison education programs on recidivism. The Journal of Correctional Education, 61(4), 316–334. google scholar
  • Fedock, G., Fries, L., & Kubiak S. (2013). Service needs for incarcerated adults: exploring gender differences, Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 52, 493–508. google scholar
  • Foley, A. (2008). The current state of gender-specific delinquency programming. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36(3), 262–269. google scholar
  • French, S. A. & Gendreau, P. (2006). Reducing Prison Misconducts: What Works! Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33(2), 185–218. google scholar
  • Gerber, J., & Fritsch, E. (1995). Adult academic and vocational correctional education programs: a review of recent research. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 22, 199–242. google scholar
  • Harer, M. D. (1995). Recidivism among federal prisoners released in 1987. Journal of Correctional Education, 46(3), 98–128. google scholar
  • Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press. Holt, N. & Miller, D. (1971). Explorations in Inmate-Family Relationships. Sacramento: Research Division, Department of Corrections, State of California (http://www.fcnetwork.org/reading/holt-miller/holt-miller8. html) google scholar
  • Huebner, B., DeJong, C., & Cobbina, J. (2010). Women coming home: long-term patterns of recidivism. Justice Quarterly, 27(2), 225–254. google scholar
  • Huebner, B. & Pleggenkuhle, B. (2015). Residential location, household, composition, and recidivism: an analysis by gender. Justice Quarterly, 32(5): 818–844. google scholar
  • Huebner, B., Varano, S., & Bynum, T. (2007). Gangs, guns, and drugs: recidivism among serious, young offenders. Criminology & Public Policy, 6(2), 187–221. google scholar
  • Jancic, M. (1998). Does correctional education have an effect on recidivism? Journal of Correctional Education, 49(4), 152–161. google scholar
  • Jones, M. & Sims, B. (1997). Recidivism of offenders released from prison in North Carolina: a gender comparison. The Prison Journal 77(3), 335–348. google scholar
  • Jurik, N. (1983). The economics of female recidivism. Criminology, 21(4), 603–622. google scholar
  • Karp, D. (2010). Unlocking me, unmasking masculinities: doing men’s work in prison. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 18(1), 63–83. google scholar
  • Keyes, D. (1996). Preventing Prison Misconduct Behavior: A Quantitative Review of the Literature. Unpublished Honor’s Thesis. Saint John, Canada: University of New Brunswick. google scholar
  • Laub, J. & Sampson, R. (2003). Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. google scholar
  • Lauderdale, M. & Burman, M. (2009). Contemporary patterns of female gangs in correctional settings. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(3), 258–280. google scholar
  • Makarios, M., Steiner, B., & Travis, L. (2010). Examining the correlates of recidivism among men and women released from prison in Ohio. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37(12), 1377–1391. google scholar
  • Martinson, R. (1974). What works? Questions and answers about prison reform. The Public Interest, 22–54. google scholar
  • Mills, J., Kroner, D., & Hemmati, T. (2003). Predicting violent behavior through a static-stable variable. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(8): 891–904. google scholar
  • Mitchell, M., Spooner, K., Jai, D., & Zhang Y. (2016). The effect of prison visitation on reentry success: a metaanalysis. Journal of Criminal Justice, 47, 74–83. google scholar
  • McCoy, L. & Miller, H. (2013). Comparing gender across risk and recidivism in nonviolent offenders. Women & Criminal Justice, 23(2), 143–162. google scholar
  • Mears, D., Cochran, J., Bales, W., & Bhati, A. (2016). Recidivism and time served in prison. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 106(1), 83–124. google scholar
  • Minnesota Department of Corrections. (2011). The Effects of Prison Visitation on Offender Recidivism. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Corrections. google scholar
  • Morash, M., Bynum, T., & Koons, B. (1998). Women offenders: programming needs and promising approaches. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. google scholar
  • Morgan, R. & Flora, D. (2002). Group psychotherapy with incarcerated offenders: a research synthesis. Group Dynamics, 6, 203–218. google scholar
  • Olson, D., Stalans, L., and Escobar, G. (2016). Comparing male and female prison releasees across risk factors and post-prison recidivism. Women & Criminal Justice, 26(2), 122–144. google scholar
  • Phelps, M. (2011). Rehabilitation in the punitive era: the gap between rhetoric and reality in U.S. prison programs. Law and Society Review, 45(1): 33–68. google scholar
  • Piehl, A. (1998). Economic conditions, work, and crime. In M. Tonry (Ed.), The handbook of crime and punishment (pp. 302–319). New York: Oxford University Press. google scholar
  • Ryan, J., & Yang, H. (2005). Family contact and recidivism: a longitudinal study of adjudicated delinquents in residential care. Social Work Research, 29, 31–39. google scholar
  • Schafer, N. (1994). Exploring the link between visits and parole success: a survey of prison visitors”. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology (38)1, 17–32. google scholar
  • Scott, C., Grella, C., Dennis, M., & Funk, R. (2014). Correlates of recidivism over 3 years among substanceusing women released from jail. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 41(11), 1257–1289. google scholar
  • Scott, T. & Ruddell, R. (2011). Canadian female gang inmates: risk, needs, and the potential for prison rehabilitation. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 50(6), 305–326. google scholar
  • Solinas-Saunders, M. & Stacer, M. (2017). A retrospective analysis of repeated incarceration using a national sample: what makes female inmates different to male inmates? Victims & Offenders, 12(1), 138–173. google scholar
  • Stuart, B. & Brice-Baker, J. (2004). Correlates of higher rates of recidivism in female prisoners: an exploratory study. The Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 32, 29–70. google scholar
  • Sykes, G. (2007). The society of captives: a study of a maximum security prison. Princeton: Princeton University Press. google scholar
  • Taylor, C. (2015). Gendered pathways to recidivism: differential effects of family support by gender. Women & Criminal Justice, 25(1), 169–183. google scholar
  • Thomas, C. & Foster, S. (1973). The importation model perspective on inmate social roles: an empirical test. Sociological Quarterly, 14, 226–234. google scholar
  • Thomas, C. & Peterson, D. (1977). Prison organization and inmate subcultures. Indianapolis, IN: The BobbsMerrill Company, Inc. google scholar
  • Tietjen, G., Garneau, C., Horowitz, V., & Noel, H. (2018). Showing up: the gendered effects of social engagement on education participation on U.S. correctional facilities. The Prison Journal, 98(3): 359–381. google scholar
  • Tracy, A., Smith, L., & Steurer, S. (1998). Standing up for education: new CEA study seeks to definitively show correlation between education and reduced recidivism. Corrections Today, 60, 144–147. google scholar
  • Uggen, C. (2000). Work as a turning point in the life course of criminals: a duration model of age, employment, and recidivism. American Sociological Review, 65(4), 529–546. google scholar
  • Wright, E., Van Voorhis, P., Salisbury, E., & Bauman, A. (2012). Gender responsive lessons learned and policy implications for women in prison: a review. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39(12), 1612–1632. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Bell, K., Mathers, S., & Lındekugel, D. (2019). Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, 7(2), 185-211. https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2019-0001


AMA

Bell K, Mathers S, Lındekugel D. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology. 2019;7(2):185-211. https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2019-0001


ABNT

Bell, K.; Mathers, S.; Lındekugel, D. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, [Publisher Location], v. 7, n. 2, p. 185-211, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Bell, Kerryn, and Scott A. Mathers and Dale M. Lındekugel. 2019. “Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors.” Journal of Penal Law and Criminology 7, no. 2: 185-211. https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2019-0001


Chicago: Humanities Style

Bell, Kerryn, and Scott A. Mathers and Dale M. Lındekugel. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors.” Journal of Penal Law and Criminology 7, no. 2 (Jul. 2022): 185-211. https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2019-0001


Harvard: Australian Style

Bell, K & Mathers, S & Lındekugel, D 2019, 'Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors', Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 185-211, viewed 4 Jul. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2019-0001


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Bell, K. and Mathers, S. and Lındekugel, D. (2019) ‘Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors’, Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, 7(2), pp. 185-211. https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2019-0001 (4 Jul. 2022).


MLA

Bell, Kerryn, and Scott A. Mathers and Dale M. Lındekugel. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors.” Journal of Penal Law and Criminology, vol. 7, no. 2, 2019, pp. 185-211. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2019-0001


Vancouver

Bell K, Mathers S, Lındekugel D. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology [Internet]. 4 Jul. 2022 [cited 4 Jul. 2022];7(2):185-211. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2019-0001 doi: 10.26650/JPLC2019-0001


ISNAD

Bell, Kerryn - Mathers, Scott A. - Lındekugel, Dale M.. Gender and Prison Recidivism: The Influence of Protective and Risk Factors”. Journal of Penal Law and Criminology 7/2 (Jul. 2022): 185-211. https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2019-0001



TIMELINE


Submitted06.01.2019
Last Revision22.07.2019
Accepted06.08.2019
Published Online27.09.2019

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.