Research Article


DOI :10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777   IUP :10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777    Full Text (PDF)

A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System

Mustafa Bölükbaşı

Modern political institutions have a long history in Turkey but because of limited competition until 1945 and military interventions in 1960, 1971, 1980, and 1997, the party system has not developed consistently. Moreover, the electoral system, particularly the 10% electoral threshold applied after 1980, directly affected the Turkish party system. Having been interrupted by non-democratic forces and attempted to be formed via political engineering, the development of Turkish political parties and party systems has not been linear. In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on the Turkish party system. However, since most studies were based on inadequate empirical data and limited to the 1990s and the 2000s, they have generally focused on the predominant party system and failed to critically review discussions on party systems. This paper analyzes Turkish party systems from 1950 to the present using the quantitative method. Adopting the criteria of the number of relevant parties and their relative strengths, this study applies different indicators such as the effective number of parties and fragmentation. This paper argues that Turkey has experienced four main different forms of party systems since 1950: a two-party system (1950-1960 and 2002), a two and a half party system (1960-1980), a moderate multiparty system with a balance among parties (1991-1999), and a moderate multiparty system with one dominant party (1983-1987, and 2007-2018).

DOI :10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777   IUP :10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777    Full Text (PDF)

Türk Parti Sistemi Üzerine Bir Yeniden Değerlendirme

Mustafa Bölükbaşı

Türkiye’de modern siyasi kurumların geçmişi eskidir ancak 1945’e kadar olan sınırlı rekabet ve 1960, 1971, 1980 ve 1997’deki askeri müdahaleler nedeniyle parti sistemi istikrarlı bir şekilde gelişememiştir. Ayrıca seçim sistemi, özellikle 1980 sonrasında uygulanan %10’luk seçim barajı, Türk parti sistemini doğrudan etkilemiştir. Demokratik olmayan güçler tarafından kesintiye uğratılan ve siyasi mühendislik ile oluşturulmaya çalışılan Türk siyasi partilerinin ve parti sisteminin gelişimi doğrusal olmamıştır. Son yıllarda, Türk parti sistemi üzerine artan sayıda bir literatür bulunmaktadır. Ancak, çoğu çalışma yetersiz ampirik veriye dayandığından ve 1990’lar ve 2000’lerle sınırlı olduğundan, genellikle hakim parti sistemine odaklanmış ve parti sistemlerine ilişkin tartışmaları eleştirel olarak gözden geçirememiştir. Bu makale 1950’den günümüze Türk parti sistemini nicel yöntemle analiz etmektedir. İlgili parti sayısı ve partilerin göreli büyüklükleri kriterlerini benimseyen bu çalışma, etkin parti sayısı ve parçalanma gibi farklı göstergeleri kullanmaktadır. Bu makale, Türkiye’nin 1950’den beri dört temel parti sistemi biçimini deneyimlediğini öne sürmektedir: iki partili sistem (1950-1960 ve 2002), iki buçuk partili sistem (1960-1980), partiler arasında dengenin olduğu ılımlı çok partili sistem (1991-1999) ve hakim partinin bulunduğu ılımlı çok partili sistem (1983-1987 ve 2007-2018).


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APA

Bölükbaşı, M. (2021). A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, 30(2), 277-289. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777


AMA

Bölükbaşı M. A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences. 2021;30(2):277-289. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777


ABNT

Bölükbaşı, M. A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, [Publisher Location], v. 30, n. 2, p. 277-289, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Bölükbaşı, Mustafa,. 2021. “A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System.” Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences 30, no. 2: 277-289. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777


Chicago: Humanities Style

Bölükbaşı, Mustafa,. A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System.” Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences 30, no. 2 (Dec. 2021): 277-289. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777


Harvard: Australian Style

Bölükbaşı, M 2021, 'A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System', Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 277-289, viewed 9 Dec. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Bölükbaşı, M. (2021) ‘A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System’, Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, 30(2), pp. 277-289. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777 (9 Dec. 2021).


MLA

Bölükbaşı, Mustafa,. A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System.” Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences, vol. 30, no. 2, 2021, pp. 277-289. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777


Vancouver

Bölükbaşı M. A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences [Internet]. 9 Dec. 2021 [cited 9 Dec. 2021];30(2):277-289. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777 doi: 10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777


ISNAD

Bölükbaşı, Mustafa. A Reassessment of the Turkish Party System”. Siyasal: Journal of Political Sciences 30/2 (Dec. 2021): 277-289. https://doi.org/10.26650/siyasal.2021.30.953777



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Submitted17.06.2021
Accepted19.09.2021
Published Online31.10.2021

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