A Ukrainian Cossack Hetman According to Russian Archival Sources: Ivan Stepanovich Mazepa (1639-1709)Tatiana Tairova, Bedirhan Ziyanak
Ivan Mazepa was an important figure in the Ukrainian lands from the last quarter of the 17th century until 1709 who served as the Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks for 22 years. During this time, he made great political, military, economic, and sociocultural progress in Ukraine and played an active role in the domestic and foreign policies of Russia throughout the era of Peter the Great. He managed to unite the Right-bank Ukraine and the Left-bank Ukraine and always aimed to preserve Ukraine’s autonomous status. In domestic politics, he endeavored to build his power on a solid basis. In the Battle of Poltava in 1709, his defection from the army to side with King Charles XII of Sweden made Mazepa a symbol of treason and evil in Russian historiography. In Ukrainian historiography and in the eyes of the people, he is remembered as a successful Hetman for what he did for Ukraine. Based on Russian archival sources, this study describes the life and political activities of Ivan Mazepa and the changes and progress that occurred in Ukraine during his time. This study aims to introduce Turkish researchers to Mazepa, an important figure in the history of Ukraine and Russia, by taking into account his connection to the Ottoman Empire.
Rus Arşiv Kaynaklarına Göre Bir Ukrayna Kazak Hetmanı: İvan Stepanovıç Mazepa (1639-1709)Tatiana Tairova, Bedirhan Ziyanak
Hetman Mazepa, XVII. yüzyılın son çeyreğinden 1709 yılına kadar Ukrayna topraklarında yaşayan önemli bir figür olmuş ve Ukrayna Kazaklarına yirmi iki yıl boyunca Hetmanlık yapmıştır. Kendi iktidarı döneminde Ukrayna’da büyük siyasi, askeri, ekonomik ve sosyo-kültürel atılımlar gerçekleştirmiş bunun yanında Büyük Petro döneminin iç ve dış politikasında etkin bir role sahip olmuştur. Sağ ve Sol Kıyı Ukrayna’sını birleştirmeyi başarmış ve Ukrayna’nın özerklik statüsünü her daim korumayı amaç edinmiştir. İç politikada ise iktidarını sağlam temeller üzerine oturtmaya gayret etmiştir. 1709 Poltava Savaşı’nda saf değiştirerek İsveç Kralı XII. Karl’ın yanına geçmesi Mazepa’yı Rus tarih yazımında “hainlik ve kötülüğün” sembolü haline getirmiştir. Ukrayna tarih yazımında ve halkın gözünde ise Ukrayna için yaptıklarıyla başarılı bir Hetman olarak anımsanmaktadır. Rus arşiv kaynaklarından hareketle çalışmamızda Ukrayna Hetmanı Mazepa’nın hayatı, siyasi faaliyetleri ve onun döneminde Ukrayna’da yaşanan değişimler ve gelişmeler anlatılmaktadır. Bu çalışmamızdaki amacımız Ukrayna ve Rusya tarihi için önemli bir şahsiyet olan Mazepa’nın Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ile bağlantısını da göz önünde bulundurarak onu Türk araştırmacıların takdirlerine sunmaktır.
Ivan Mazepa (1639-1709) administered the Cossack Hetmanate as its Hetman for 22 years from 1607 until his death in 1709 and placed significant impacts on Ukrainian lands. His years in the dominion are recognized as one of if not the most successful periods in the history of the Ukrainian Cossack. The education he received from his childhood, his travels to different countries in Europe, and the experiences he gained regarding important tasks during the reigns of his precursors played a great role in Hetman Mazepa becoming an experienced and talented administrator. After becoming Hetman, Mazepa attempted to strengthen his authority in domestic politics and encountered bitter struggles against opposition groups. He reestablished the lease system, which brought large income to the treasury, as well as the regiment system, which was an important administrative military institution. In this way, Ukraine was able to achieve economic stability and welfare. In addition, he managed to unite the Right-bank Ukraine with Left-bank Ukraine and always aimed to preserve Ukraine’s autonomous status. He attached great importance to the progress of art, culture, and science and provided moral and material support to all who were talented in these domains.
Hetman Mazepa had attempted to play safe against the regency of Sophia Alekseyevna (1657-1704) and Prince Vasily V. Golitsyn. As a wise and crafty statesman, Mazepa waited for the most favorable conditions and made political and economic gains by supporting Peter the Great (1672-1725) during his political coup against the Regent Sophia. He played an active role in Russia’s domestic and foreign policy throughout the era of Peter the Great. Mazepa supported Peter the Great in solving military issues and found his own place in Russia’s domestic and foreign politics and in the formation of a new intellectual culture. In this way, Mazepa managed to become one of the key figures in the early phase of the Russian Empire’s founding. During the Great Northern War, the conflict between Peter the Great’s plans and Ukrainian interests led Hetman Mazepa to make the most important a decision of his life. At the Battle of Poltava in 1709 between King Charles XII of Sweden (1682-1718) and Peter the Great, Hetman Mazepa defected to the Swedes in his and Ukraine’s interests. Their defeat by Peter the Great at the Battle of Poltava led them to come under Ottoman rule. Mazepa’s defection to the Swedes made him a symbol of treason and evil in Russian historiography. In Ukrainian historiography and in the eyes of the Ukrainian people, however, he is remembered as a successful Hetman and national hero for what he did for Ukraine.
From the middle of the 17th century to the beginning of the 18th century when important events eventually occurred for Russia and Ukraine, Hetman Mazepa more wisely continued the policies initiated by his precursors, Doroshenko (1627-1676) and Samoylovych (1630-1690), in the interests of Ukraine. Hetman Mazepa became one of the main characters whose deeds have left their mark on the history of Ukraine and Russia. Our study investigates and explains Mazepa’s life as well as the political events and economic, social, and cultural activities and developments that occurred during his rule. The overriding goal in this study is to introduce Turkish researchers to Ivan Mazepa as an important figure in the history of Ukraine and Russia by taking into account his connections with the Ottoman Empire. The article mainly benefits from Russian archival documents and various primary sources, in addition to also consulting Ukrainian and Polish sources. Ottoman archival sources have been excluded from the study, which only additionally reviewed existing works in the Turkish literature.