Journal of Transportation and Logistics (JTL) is a new multidisciplinary and semi-annual published official journal of Istanbul University, The School of Transportation and Logistics. The aim of the journal is to disseminate the new ideas on the issues and problems faced by transportation and logistics industry which becomes irrevocable for the global economy. JTL provides academicians and practitioners with a dynamic platform to discuss and analyze the new issues for transportation and logistics. It presents an independent, original and elaborated analysis to facilitate the interchange of information about logistics and supply chain management among business planners and researchers on a world-wide basis as well as a platform for new thinking on the problems and techniques of logistics and supply chain management. Academicians and practitioners are invited to submit articles, research papers, case studies and review articles that progress the science and practice of transportation, logistics and supply chain management. While articles in any area of transportation, logistics or supply chain management are welcomed, the editors are especially interested in those dealing with managerial applications of theory and technique. Articles which provide guidelines for framing, interpreting or implementing the transport and logistics process in the supply chain are of particular interest. Thus, subjects covered in this journal may include business; entrepreneurship; management and accounting; corporate governance; customer relationship management (CRM); marketing; human resources management; economics, finance, business & industry; industry & industrial studies; logistics; inbound and outbound logistics; supply chain management; transport industries; green logistics; reverse logistics; humanitarian logistics; sustainability; city logistics. All articles are anonymously reviewed for publication by referees who look for original ideas that are clearly presented.
Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Mehmet Adak, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assist. Prof. Abit Balin, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Co-Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Rasim İlker Gökbulut, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Erkan Çelik, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Yi Hsien Wang, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan

Managing Editor
Assist. Prof. Bahadır Fatih Yıldırım, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Language Editor
Lecturer Elizabeth Mary Earl, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Lecturer Alan James Newson, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Statistics Editor
Assoc. Prof. Burcu Adıgüzel Mercangöz, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Editorial Board Member
Prof. Abdullah Okumuş, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Ayşe Güldem Cerit, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Izmir, Turkey
Prof. Bruce Ho, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
Prof. Chelsea White, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, United-States
Prof. Ergün Eroğlu, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Goh Mark, National University of Singapore, Lower-Kent-Ridge-Rd, Singapore
Prof. Haluk Korkmazyürek, Toros Üniversitesi, Mersin, Turkey
Prof. Kannan Govindan, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Prof. Kulwant Pawar, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United-Kingdom
Prof. M. Mehdi Amini, Memphis University, Memphis, United-States
Prof. Malgorzata Pankowska, University of Economics in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
Prof. Mehmet Tanyaş, Maltepe Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Mukesh Kumar Barua, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India
Prof. Murat Kıyılar, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Nachiappan Subramanian, University of Sussex, Sussex, United-Kingdom
Prof. Ömer Özkan, Cyprus West Unıversıty, Famagusta, North-Cyprus
Prof. Özcan Kılıç, University of Wisconsin-River Falls, River-Falls, United-States
Prof. Sadettin Özen, Maltepe Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Samuel Fosso Wamba, Toulouse Business School, Toulouse, France
Prof. Sanjay Misra, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
Prof. Seung Chul Kim, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea,-South
Prof. Sihyun Paik, Yanbian University of Science & Technology, Jilin, China
Prof. Talha Harcar, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, United-States
Prof. Turan Paksoy, Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, Konya, Turkey
Prof. Vedat Sarıkovanlık, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Yavuz Günalay, Bahçeşehir Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Tuncay Çelik, Erciyes Üniversitesi, Kayseri, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Diego Escobari, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Texas, United-States
Assoc. Prof. Ebru Demirci, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Eren Özceylan, Gaziantep Üniversitesi, Gaziantep, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Eugene Wong, Hang Seng University, Shatin, Hong-Kong
Assoc. Prof. Giovanni Satta, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Assoc. Prof. Gültekin Altuntaş, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Hakan Demirel, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit Üniversitesi, Zonguldak, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Halit Özen, Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Lincoln C. Wood, University of Otago, Dunedin, New-Zealand
Assoc. Prof. Muhammet Gül, Munzur Üniversitesi, Tunceli, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Shao Hung Goh, Singapore University Of Social Sciences, Clementi-Road, Singapore
Assoc. Prof. Sigal Kaplan, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Assoc. Prof. Syed Masiur Rahman, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi-Arabia
Assoc. Prof. Taih Cherng Lirn, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan
Assoc. Prof. Xiaolei Wang, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Assoc. Prof. Zehra Bozbay, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Wei Li, Central South University, Changsha, China
Assist. Prof. Özge Nalan Bilişik, Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assist. Prof. Banu Yüksel Özkaya, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkey
Dr. Cafer Avcı, Yalova Üniversitesi, Yalova, Turkey
Dr. Melike Erdoğan, Düzce Üniversitesi, Duzce, Turkey
Dr. Rahimeh Neamatian Monemi, University of Southampton, Southampton, United-Kingdom

Journal of Transportation and Logistics (JTL) is a multidisciplinary and semi-annual published official journal of Istanbul University, The Faculty of Transportation and Logistics. The aim of the journal is to disseminate the new ideas on the issues and problems faced by transportation and logistics industry which becomes irrevocable for the global economy. JTL provides academicians and practitioners with a dynamic platform to discuss and analyze the new issues for transportation and logistics. It presents an independent, original and elaborated analysis to facilitate the interchange of information about logistics and supply chain management among business planners and researchers on a world-wide basis as well as a platform for new thinking on the problems and techniques of logistics and supply chain management. Academicians and practitioners are invited to submit articles, research papers, case studies and review articles that progress the science and practice of transportation, logistics and supply chain management. While articles in any area of transportation, logistics or supply chain management are welcomed, the editors are especially interested in those dealing with managerial applications of theory and technique. Articles which provide guidelines for framing, interpreting or implementing the transport and logistics process in the supply chain are of particular interest. Thus, subjects covered in this journal may include business; entrepreneurship; management and accounting; corporate governance; customer relationship management (CRM); marketing; human resources management; economics, finance, business & industry; industry & industrial studies; logistics; inbound and outbound logistics; supply chain management; transport industries; green logistics; reverse logistics; humanitarian logistics; sustainability; city logistics. All articles are anonymously reviewed for publication by referees who look for original ideas that are clearly presented.


The journal is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparency-and-best-practice-scholarly-publishing

The subjects covered in the manuscripts submitted to the Journal for publication must be in accordance with the aim and scope of the Journal. Only those manuscripts approved by every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Changing the name of an author (omission, addition or order) in papers submitted to the Journal requires written permission of all declared authors.

Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unethical behaviors. All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This also contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication.

Plagiarism
Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. If plagiarism/self-plagiarism will be found authors will be informed. Editors may resubmit manuscript for similarity check at any peer-review or production stage if required. High similarity scores may lead to rejection of a manuscript before and even after acceptance. Depending on the type of article and the percentage of similarity score taken from each article, the overall similarity score is generally expected to be less than 15 or 20%.

Double Blind Peer-Review
After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by the editors-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope. The editor provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles and hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

The journal is an open access journal and all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Except for commercial purposes, users are allowed to read, download, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

The open access articles in the journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.

All expenses of the journal are covered by the Istanbul University. Processing and publication are free ofcharge with the journal. There is no article processing charges or submission fees for any submitted or accepted articles.

Authors publishing with the journal retain the copyright to their work licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ) and grant the Publisher non-exclusive commercial right to publish the work. CC BY-NC 4.0 license permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The Journal of Transportation and Logistics is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), to access the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparency-and-bestpractice-scholarly-publishing

 All parties involved in the publishing process (Editors, Reviewers, Authors and Publisher) are expected to agree on the following ethical principles.

All submissions must be original, unpublished (including as full text in conference proceedings), and not under the review of any other publication synchronously. Each manuscript is reviewed by one of the editors and at least two referees under double-blind peer review process. Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unnethical behaviors.

All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This also contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication. In accordance with the code of conduct we will report any cases of suspected plagiarism or duplicate publishing.

The Journal of Transportation and Logistics adheres to the highest standards in research ethics and follows the principles of international research ethics as defined below. The authors are responsible for the compliance of the manuscripts with the ethical rules.

  • Principles of integrity, quality and transparency should be sustained in designing the research, reviewing the design and conducting the research.
  • The research team and participants should be fully informed about the aim, methods, possible uses and requirements of the research and risks of participation in research.
  • The confidentiality of the information provided by the research participants and the confidentiality of the respondents should be ensured. The research should be designed to protect the autonomy and dignity of the participants.
  • Research participants should participate in the research voluntarily, not under any coercion. - Any possible harm to participants must be avoided. The research should be planned in such a way that the participants are not at risk.
  • The independence of research must be clear; and any conflict of interest must be disclosed.
  • In experimental studies with human subjects, written informed consent of the participants who decide to participate in the research must be obtained. In the case of children and those under wardship or with confirmed insanity, legal custodian’s assent must be obtained.
  • If the study is to be carried out in any institution or organization, approval must be obtained from this institution or organization.
  • In studies with human subject, it must be noted in the method’s section of the manuscript that the informed consent of the participants and ethics committee approval from the institution where the study has been conducted have been obtained.

It is authors’ responsibility to ensure that the article is in accordance with scientific and ethical standards and rules. And authors must ensure that submitted work is original. They must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere or is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere, in any language. Applicable copyright laws and conventions must be followed. Copyright material (e.g. tables, figures or extensive quotations) must be reproduced only with appropriate permission and acknowledgement. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources must be appropriately credited and referenced.

All the authors of a submitted manuscript must have direct scientific and academic contribution to the manuscript. The author(s) of the original research articles is defined as a person who is significantly involved in “conceptualization and design of the study”, “collecting the data”, “analyzing the data”, “writing the manuscript”, “reviewing the manuscript with a critical perspective” and “planning/conducting the study of the manuscript and/or revising it”. Fund raising, data collection or supervision of the research group are not sufficient roles to be accepted as an author. The author(s) must meet all these criteria described above. The order of names in the author list of an article must be a co-decision and it must be indicated in the Copyright Agreement Form. The individuals who do not meet the authorship criteria but contributed to the study must take place in the acknowledgement section. Individuals providing technical support, assisting writing, providing a general support, providing material or financial support are examples to be indicated in acknowledgement section.

All authors must disclose all issues concerning financial relationship, conflict of interest, and competing interest that may potentially influence the results of the research or scientific judgment.

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published paper, it is the author’s obligation to promptly cooperate with the Editor to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. He/She provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication. He/She must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers. Only he has the full authority to assign a reviewer and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by editor-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

The editor hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for double-blind peer review evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.


Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. He/She provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication. He/She must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers. Only he has the full authority to assign a reviewer and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by Editor-in-Chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope. Editor-inChief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors and ensures a fair double-blind peer review of the selected manuscripts.

The selected manuscripts are sent to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and publication decision is given by Editor-in-Chief upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the journal.

Reviewers’ judgments must be objective. Reviewers’ comments on the following aspects are expected while conducting the review.

- Does the manuscript contain new and significant information?

- Does the abstract clearly and accurately describe the content of the manuscript?

- Is the problem significant and concisely stated? - Are the methods described comprehensively? - Are the interpretations and consclusions justified by the results?

- Is adequate references made to other Works in the field?

- Is the language acceptable?

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees is important.


Language

Articles in Turkish and English are published. Submitted manuscript must include an abstract both in the article language and in English, and an extended abstract in English as well. However extended abstract in English is not required for articles in English.

Manuscript Organization 

All correspondence will be sent to the first-named author unless otherwise specified. Manuscpript is to be submitted online via https://iupress.istanbul.edu.tr/tr/journal/jtl/home that can be accessed at https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/journal/767/submission/step/manuscript/new and it must be accompanied by a Title Page specifying the article category (i.e. research article, review etc.) and including information about the manuscript (see the Submission Checklist). Manuscripts should be prepared in Microsoft Word 2003 and upper versions. In addition, Copyright Agreement Form that has to be signed by all authors must be submitted.

1. Manuscripts should be prepared using the Article Template. Due to double blind peer review, manuscript file must not include any information about the author.

2. A title page including author information must be submitted together with the manuscript. The title page is to include fully descriptive title of the manuscript and, affiliation, title, e-mail address, ORCID, postal address, phone, mobile phone and fax number of the author(s) (see The Submission Checklist).

3. Before the introduction part, there should be an abstract of 180-200 words in English. If the manuscript is in Turkish, extended abstract in English between 600-800 word is required.. Underneath the abstracts, 3 keywords that inform the reader about the content of the study should be specified.

4. The manuscripts should contain mainly these components: title, abstract and keywords; extended abstract in English (for articles in Turkish), sections, references, tables and figures.

5. References should be in accordance with American Psychological Association (APA) style 6th Edition.

6. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work submitted to the journal for publication.

Manuscript Submission

DergiPark manuscript submission site of the journal is: https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/journal/767/submission/step/manuscript/new

The manuscript must be submitted through the account of the corresponding author. The account of authors other than the corresponding author or someone else who is not included as an author in the work must not be used for submission. All correspondence regarding the submission is made with the correspondingauthor through e-mail via the DergiPark system.

While uploading Main Document, make sure that the main document has no information that clarify the author’s identity. Due to double blind peer review, Main Document must not include Title Page, the name of author or any other detail that can disclose the author identity.

Research Article: Original research articles report substantial and original scientific results within the journal scope. Original research articles are comprised of Abstract, Key Words, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, References and Figures, Tables and Graphics.

  • Abstract: The abstracts in English must be between 180-200 words and state aim, method, result and conclusions of the study. If the article is in Turkish 180-200 words of abstract both in Turkish and English and  extended abstract of 600-800 words in English must be written as well following the abstracts.
  • Introduction: This section must contain a clear statement of the general and specific objectives as well as the hypotheses which the work is designed to test. It should also give a brief account of the reported literature. It should clearly state the primary and secondary purposes of the article. Only, the actual references related with the issues have to be indicated and data or findings related with the current study must not be included in this section.
  • Methods: This section must contain explicit, concise descriptions of all procedures, materials and methods (i.e. data sources, participants, scales, interviews/reviews, basic measurements, applications, statistical methods) used in the investigation to enable the reader to judge their accuracy, reproducibility, etc. This section should include the known findings at the beginning of the study and the findings during the study must be reported in results section.
  • Results: The results should be presented in logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important findings first. The all the data in the tables or figures should not be repeated in the text; only the most important observations must be emphasized or summarized.
  • Discussion: The findings of the study, the findings and results which support or do not support the hypothesis of the study should be discussed, results should be compared and contrasted with findings of other studies in the literature and the different findings from other studies should be explained. The new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them should be emphasized. The data or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section should not be repeated in detail.
  • Conclusions: Conclusions derived from the study should be stated. The conclusions should be linked with the goals of the study but unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data should be avoided. New hypotheses should be stated when warranted, but should be labeled clearly as such.
  • Figures, Tables and Graphics: Figures, tables and graphics materials should be “.jpg, .tiff or .jpeg” format and they should be submitted with the article. These materials should be min. 300 pixels and they must not be bigger than page size. The illustrations should not exceed 10 pages. All illustrations should be labelled and a list of figures with captions, legends, and credits should be provided on a separate page.

Review Article: Reviews prepared by authors who have extensive knowledge on a particular field and whose scientific background has been translated into a high volume of publications with a high citation potential are welcomed. These authors may even be invited by the journal. Review article should contain title, abstract and keywords; body text with sections, and references.

Reference Style and Format

The Journal of Transportation and Logistics complies with APA (American Psychological Association) style 6th Edition for referencing and quoting. For more information:

  • American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: APA.

Accuracy of citation is the author’s responsibility. All references should be cited in text. Reference list must be in alphabetical order. Type references in the style shown below.

Citations in the Text

Citations must be indicated with the author surname and publication year within the parenthesis. If more than one citation is made within the same paranthesis, separate them with (;).

Samples:

More than one citation;

(Esin, et al., 2002; Karasar, 1995) Citation with one author; (Akyolcu, 2007)

Citation with two authors;

(Sayıner & Demirci, 2007)

Citation with three, four, five authors;

First citation in the text: (Ailen, Ciambrune, & Welch, 2000) Subsequent citations in the text: (Ailen, et al., 2000)

Citations with more than six authors;

(Çavdar, et al., 2003)

Citations in the Reference

All the citations done in the text should be listed in the References section in alphabetical order of author surname without numbering. Below given examples should be considered in citing the references.

Basic Reference Types Book

a) Turkish Book

Karasar, N. (1995). Araştırmalarda rapor hazırlama (8th ed.) [Preparing research reports]. Ankara, Turkey: 3A Eğitim Danışmanlık Ltd.

b) Book Translated into Turkish

Mucchielli, A. (1991). Zihniyetler [Mindsets] (A. Kotil, Trans.). İstanbul, Turkey: İletişim Yayınları.

c) Edited Book

Ören, T., Üney, T., & Çölkesen, R. (Eds.). (2006). Türkiye bilişim ansiklopedisi [Turkish Encyclopedia of Informatics]. İstanbul, Turkey: Papatya Yayıncılık.

d) Turkish Book with Multiple Authors

Tonta, Y., Bitirim, Y., & Sever, H. (2002). Türkçe arama motorlarında performans değerlendirme [Performance evaluation in Turkish search engines]. Ankara, Turkey: Total Bilişim.

e) Book in English

Kamien R., & Kamien A. (2014). Music: An appreciation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

f) Chapter in an Edited Book

Bassett, C. (2006). Cultural studies and new media. In G. Hall & C. Birchall (Eds.), New cultural studies: Adventures in theory (pp. 220–237). Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.

g) Chapter in an Edited Book in Turkish

Erkmen, T. (2012). Örgüt kültürü: Fonksiyonları, öğeleri, işletme yönetimi ve liderlikteki önemi [Organization culture: Its functions, elements and importance in leadership and business management]. In M. Zencirkıran (Ed.), Örgüt sosyolojisi [Organization sociology] (pp. 233–263). Bursa, Turkey: Dora Basım Yayın.

h) Book with the same organization as author and publisher

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Article

a) Turkish Article

Mutlu, B., & Savaşer, S. (2007). Çocuğu ameliyat sonrası yoğun bakımda olan ebeveynlerde stres nedenleri ve azaltma girişimleri [Source and intervention reduction of stress for parents whose children are in intensive care unit after surgery]. Istanbul University Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing, 15(60), 179–182.

a) English Article

de Cillia, R., Reisigl, M., & Wodak, R. (1999). The discursive construction of national identity. Discourse and Society, 10(2), 149–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957926599010002002

b) Journal Article with DOI and More Than Seven Authors

Lal, H., Cunningham, A. L., Godeaux, O., Chlibek, R., Diez-Domingo, J., Hwang, S.-J  Heineman, T. C.

(2015). Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 372, 2087–2096. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1501184

c)   Journal Article from Web, without DOI

Sidani, S. (2003). Enhancing the evaluation of nursing care effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 35(3), 26–38. Retrieved from http://cjnr.mcgill.ca

d) Journal Article wih DOI

Turner, S. J. (2010). Website statistics 2.0: Using Google Analytics to measure library website effectiveness.

Technical Services Quarterly, 27, 261–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07317131003765910

e) Advance Online Publication

Smith, J. A. (2010). Citing advance online publication: A review. Journal of Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a45d7867

f) Article in a Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28–31.

Doctoral Dissertation, Master’s Thesis, Presentation, Proceeding

a) Dissertation/Thesis from a Commercial Database

Van Brunt, D. (1997). Networked consumer health information systems (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 9943436)

b) Dissertation/Thesis from an Institutional Database

Yaylalı-Yıldız, B. (2014). University campuses as places of potential publicness: Exploring the politicals, social and cultural practices in Ege University (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Retrieved from: http://library.iyte.edu.tr/tr/hizli-erisim/iyte-tez-portali

c) Dissertation/Thesis from Web

Tonta, Y. A. (1992). An analysis of search failures in online library catalogs (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley). Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/yayinlar /phd/ickapak.html

d) Dissertation/Thesis abstracted in Dissertations Abstracts International

Appelbaum, L. G. (2005). Three studies of human information processing: Texture amplification, motion representation, and figure-ground segregation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 65(10), 5428.

e) Symposium Contribution

Krinsky-McHale, S. J., Zigman, W. B., & Silverman, W. (2012, August). Are neuropsychiatric symptoms markers of prodromal Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down syndrome? In W. B. Zigman (Chair), Predictors of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and mortality in adults with Down syndrome. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

f) Conference Paper Abstract Retrieved Online

Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems,

Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from http://www.iceis.org/iceis2005/abstracts_2005.htm

a) Conference Paper - In Regularly Published Proceedings and Retrieved Online

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 12593–12598. http://dx.doi. org/10.1073/pnas.0805417105

b) Proceeding in Book Form

Parsons, O. A., Pryzwansky, W. B., Weinstein, D. J., & Wiens, A. N. (1995). Taxonomy for psychology. In J.

N. Reich, H. Sands, & A. N. Wiens (Eds.), Education and training beyond the doctoral degree: Proceedings of the American Psychological Association National Conference on Postdoctoral Education and Training in Psychology (pp. 45–50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

i) Paper Presentation

Nguyen, C. A. (2012, August). Humor and deception in advertising: When laughter may not be the best medicine. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

Other Sources

a) Newspaper Article

Browne, R. (2010, March 21). This brainless patient is no dummy. Sydney Morning Herald, 45.

b) Newspaper Article with no Author

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

c) Web Page/Blog Post

Bordwell, D. (2013, June 18). David Koepp: Making the world movie-sized [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.davidbordwell.net/blog/page/27/

d)  Online Encyclopedia/Dictionary

Ignition. (1989). In Oxford English online dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed.com Marcoux, A. (2008). Business ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved fromhttp://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-business/

e)  Podcast

Dunning, B. (Producer). (2011, January 12). in Fact: Conspiracy theories [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com/

f)   Single Episode in a Television Series

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate. [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House; New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

g)  Music

Fuchs, G. (2004). Light the menorah. On Eight nights of Hanukkah [CD]. Brick, NJ: Kid Kosher.

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