A Study on Translation of Humorous Elements: An Example of A Christmas NightGülhanım Ünsal
Translation has been one of the main methods of intercultural communication and an important form of cultural encounters since the earliest times. It transfers the culture of the “other” between languages and cultures as the mediator. In literary translation, the translation of cultural elements is one of the most important problems encountered in the process of rewriting in the target language. This problem becomes even more complicated in the translation of humor as every society has a different sense of humor. In this regard, humor holds a very sensitive place in literature with its many varieties. The same elements that affect writing and intelligibility of humor appear in translation. For this reason, humorous texts are considered as either untranslatable or very difficult to translate. Thus, humor translation is generally considered as lost. Being able to prevent losses in humor translation will depend on the imagination, creativity and rewriting ability of the translator. Based on this point, in this study, the humorous story by Guy de Maupassant named Nuit de Noël (A Christmas Night) was selected, and the methods and strategies were applied in the translation were analyzed in the context of functional dynamic equivalence approach in line with the decisions of translator. Accordingly, it is observed that the adaptation method was used in order to provide the same effect as the source text, and some strategies such as addition, omission, substitution, word for word translation and borrowing were used in the target text. As a result, it was observed that dynamic equivalence was achieved, the target text had almost the same humorous effect as the source text and the translator minimized the loss of humor
Mizahî Ögelerin Çevirisi Üzerine Bir İnceleme: Bir Noel Gecesi ÖrneğiGülhanım Ünsal
Çeviri, en eski zamanlardan beri, kültürlerarası temel iletişim araçlarından ve kültür çakışmasının önemli biçimlerinden biri olmuştur. Çeviri diller ve kültürlerarası arabulucu niteliğiyle “öteki”nin kültürünü aktarır. Yazın çevirisinde, erek dilde yeniden yaratma sürecinde kültürel ögelerin çevirisi en önemli sorunlardan birini oluşturur. Bu sorun mizah çevirisinde daha da karmaşık bir hal alır. Çünkü her toplum farklı bir mizah anlayışına sahiptir. Bu bakımdan, mizah birçok çeşidiyle yazında çok hassas bir yer tutar. Mizah yazımı ve anlaşılırlığını etkileyen ögelerin aynısı çevirisinde de görünür. Bunun için, mizah metinleri ya çevrilemez ya da çevirisi çok zor olarak kabul edilir. Bu nedenle genelde mizah çevirisi kayıp sayılır. Çeviride mizahi kayıpları önleyebilmek çevirmenin hayal gücü, yaratıcılık ve yeniden yazma yeteneğine bağlı kalacaktır. Bu noktadan hareketle, bu çalışmada Guy de Maupassant’ın Nuit de Noël (Bir Noel Gecesi) adlı öyküsü, çevirmen kararları doğrultusunda, devingen eşdeğerlik yaklaşımı bağlamında mizahi ögelerin çevirisi açısından incelenmiş ve çevirisinde uygulanan yöntem ve stratejiler belirlenmiştir. Buna göre, kaynak metinle aynı etkiyi sağlamak amacıyla erek metinde uyarlama yöntemine başvurulduğu; silme, ekleme, değiştirme, sözcüğü sözcüğüne çevirme, ödünçleme, vb. stratejilerin kullanıldığı gözlemlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, devingen eşdeğerliğin sağlandığı, erek metnin kaynak metinle hemen hemen aynı mizahi etkiyi yarattığı, çevirmenin mizah kaybını en aza indirgediği gözlemlenmiştir.
Translation has been one of the main methods of intercultural communication and an important form of cultural encounters since the earliest times. It transfers the culture of the “other” between languages and cultures as mediator. In literary translation, the translation of cultural elements is one of the most important problems encountered in the process of rewriting in the target language. This problem becomes even more complicated when the translation of humor makes someone laugh shaped by another culture because every culture has a different sense of humor. Humor is a form of amusement and criticism. Humor is the tool to break the automated environment. Humor is universal and it is a serious activity. Humor is based on tolerance between the receiver and the transmitter. There are many types of humorous elements such as physical, linguistic, situational, cultural, etc. Brevity is the most important characteristic of humor. In translation, explaining for better understanding kills humor. The cultural differences emerge as environment, material culture, social culture, religious culture and language culture. Based on this distinction, it can be said that the humor of each society has a close relationship with the lifestyle (material culture) and region. This is why every society has its own humor. People laugh at different topics such as culture, history, geography, society, language, religion, age, education, etc. depending on the people. Humor holds a very sensitive place in literature with its many varieties. Humor texts are format-oriented. For this reason, it can be said that it is included in the narrative text type in Reiss text typology. In this text type, the writer uses the language in an original and creative way. The formal language characteristics such as voice, word, sentence, etc. are important in this type. This type of texts enriches our lives. The same elements that affect writing and intelligibility of humor appear in the translation of this kind of text. For this reason, humorous texts are considered as either untranslatable or very difficult to translate. It can be said that the difficulties of these translations are linguistic, cultural, stylistic and sociolinguistics. Thus, humor translation is generally considered as lost. In order for the humor components to have the same effect in the target culture, the target-oriented translation approach should be adopted, the humor translation should be directed towards the target culture and the foreignizing between the receiver and the product belonging to a different culture should be removed. On the other hand, if the humor translation is directed towards the source-oriented, there may be alienation between the product and the receiver. In other words, laughing doesn’t happen. And yet, the translator is the person who decides how to represent a foreign culture and what kind of strategy to be followed in translation of the humor. In the translation of humor, the receiver comes before the text. Equivalence can be achieved not by the structure of the original text, but by sticking to the effect it produces. Meaning is translated in the translation of humor. The translator does not destroy the message; s/he changes it for better understanding. Nevertheless, being able to prevent humorous losses in translation will depend on the imagination, creativity and rewriting ability of the translator. Based on this point, in this study, the humorous story by Guy de Maupassant named Nuit de Noël (A Christmas Night) was selected and the humor translation was examined through translator decisions. In this context, the type of humor and the methods and strategies applied in the translation were determined. Accordingly, it was observed that the target-oriented translation approach was adopted in the translation text. It was determined that the adaptation method was used to provide the same effect as the source text. Thus, it provided the dynamic equivalence in the target language. It was identified that among the strategies used were addition, omission, substitution, deletion, word to word translation, borrowing, etc. The translation text was also examined in terms of humor types. The study included five types of humor. These genres can be cited as physical humor, linguistic humor, situational humor, cultural humor and implicit humor. As a result, it was observed that dynamic equivalence was achieved, the target text had almost the same humorous effect as the source text and the translator minimized the loss of humor.