Possibilities of the Phraseological Consideration of One-Word Idioms from the Perspective of Phraseological Criteria on the Basis of Slovak and German ExamplesAnita Braxatorısová
The article is devoted to the extent to which one-word idioms meet the criteria of phraseology. We focus on German and Slovak expressive idiomatic compounds expressing personal characteristics. We see a problem in the fact that the class of words called one-word idioms consists of heterogeneous groups that differ from one another in certain aspects. On the basis of the number of their components, we distinguish between one-word idioms with one and those with at least two components. In the first case, these are auto-semantic words with a figurative meaning, while in the second case it is a matter of compound words. In German and in Slovak, these are mainly nouns; in Hungarian, in addition to nouns, there are also adjectives and two-component verbs, which can also be written separately. In this case, however, the words have a literal meaning. It is a paradox because the same two-component phrase is written together in the figurative sense, therefore does not meet all the criteria of phraseology and is excluded from phraseology because of its monolexicality. The article is devoted to reflecting on the opinions of linguists concerned with comparing convergent and divergent relationships between the features of one-word idioms and the generally accepted phraseological criteria. We are concerned with the discussion of idiomaticity, as it is generally considered to be the most important criterion in relation to phraseologicity. Since we see the anomaly of one-word idioms mainly in their monolexicality, the following analysis will focus on this property.
Möglichkeiten der phraseologischen Betrachtung der Einwortidiome aus der Sicht der phraseologischen Kriterien auf der Basis von slowakischen und deutschen BeispielenAnita Braxatorısová
Der Artikel widmet sich der Frage, inwieweit Einwortidiome die Kriterien der Phraseologie erfüllen. Dabei orientieren wir uns an deutschen und slowakischen idiomatischen Komposita, die ein bestimmtes Merkmal einer Person auf expressive Weise ausdrücken. Ein Problem sehen wir in der Tatsache, dass die Klasse von Wörtern, die als Einwortidiome bezeichnet werden, aus heterogenen Gruppen besteht, die bei bestimmten Aspekten voneinander abweichen. Wir unterscheiden aufgrund der Anzahl ihrer Komponenten zwischen zwei großen Gruppen, zwischen Einwortidiomen mit einer und jenen mit mindestens zwei Komponenten. Im ersten Fall handelt es sich um autosemantische Wörter mit übertragener Bedeutung, im zweiten dagegen um Komposita. Im Deutschen und im Slowakischen geht es hauptsächlich um Substantive, im Ungarischen auch um Adjektive und um Zweikomponentenverben, die auch separat geschrieben werden können. In diesem Fall handelt es sich jedoch um eine literare Bedeutung. Es ist ein Paradoxon, da dieselbe Zweikomponentenphrase im übertragenen Sinne zusammengeschrieben wird, daher nicht alle Kriterien der Phraseologie erfüllen und gerade aufgrund der Monolexikalität aus der Phraseologie ausgeschlossen wird. Der Artikel widmet sich der Reflexion über die Meinungen von Linguisten, die sich mit dem Vergleich von konvergenten und divergenten Beziehungen zwischen den Merkmalen von Einwortidiomen und den allgemein anerkannten phraseologischen Kriterien befassen. Wir beschäftigen uns mit der Diskussion über die Idiomatizität, da sie allgemein als das wichtigste Kriterium in Bezug auf die Phraseologizität angesehen wird. Polylexikalität, Stabilität, Lexikalisierung und Reproduzierbarkeit werden hauptsächlich in Bezug auf die Unregelmäßigkeiten dargestellt. Da wir die Anomalität von Einwortidiomen hauptsächlich in ihrer Monolexikalität sehen, konzentriert sich die folgende Analyse auf diese Eigenschaft.
The article addresses the question of the extent to which one-word idioms meet the criteria of phraseology. It specifically focuses on idiomatic compound words, especially in the German and Slovak languages. It finds problematic the fact that the class of words that are referred to as one-word idioms forms a heterogeneous group of terms that differ fundamentally in certain aspects. The text distinguishes between two large groups of one-word idioms based on the number of their components, namely one-word idioms with one or at least two components. In the first case, these are autosemantic words with a transferred meaning, especially verbs, nouns and adjectives that have undergone metaphorisation. In the second case, these are compound words, mainly nouns in German and Slovak. (The study draws attention to the fact that in Hungarian this group includes, in addition to nouns and adjectives, two-component verbs whose spelling, i.e. their being written together, signals figurativeness of meaning. On the contrary, the separation of equivalent verb-noun phrases speaks of their literal meaning. It can be perceived as a paradox that writing a two-component verb (together) in a figurative sense leads to the loss of the definitional criterion of phraseology and, due to monolexicality, excludes it from the phraseological fund.) In German there are one-word idioms, according to stylistic parameters, which are especially common in the sphere of communications, including professional jargon from the fields of economics, journalism and administration, and from the language of belles-lettres to the expressive and vulgar lexicon.
From the point of view of word formation, subgroups are distinguished, a part of which can be perceived as a class of fully idiomatic, e.g. dephraseological derivatives formed by the conglomeration of a phraseological phrase. In this case, all components of the compound word are idiomatic, similar to the components of exocentric compounds, the denotate of which does not fall within the extension of the term expressed by the basic word when used directly. This feature is also characteristic of possessive composites, which can be perceived as a subclass of exocentric composites, but which, in their literal interpretation, would express an ownership relationship tied to the respective components (e.g. Wendehals). For these types of one-word idioms, the meaning is not compositional, as in determinative or coordinate composites; their significance cannot be determined directly from the significance of their components.
The article reflects the opinions of linguists who deal with the comparison of convergent and divergent relationships between the characteristics of one-word idioms and generally accepted phraseological criteria. Although there is controversy in scientific sources about the hierarchy of major phraseological features (compare Vajičková, 2002; Ďurčo, 1994; Mlacek, 1984; Palm, 1997), the determination of affiliation to the phraseological fund is based on the phraseological criteria of idiomaticity, polylexicality, irregularity, stability, lexicalization and reproducibility (compare Burger & Jaschke, 1973; Fleischer, 1982; Vajičková, 2002; Ďurčo, 1994). The study deals most extensively with the discussion of idiomatics, which is understood in terms of phraseology as the most important criterion (Vajičková, 2002; Ďurčo, 1994). The criteria of stability, lexicalisation and reproducibility are presented mainly in regard to irregularity due to their apparent presence. The semantic stability of compound nominal one-word idioms results from their established, transferred meaning.
As for their formal side and meaning, they are stable and have a specific meaning (Duhme, 1995). Correct interpretation of meaning is performed automatically (Duhme, 1995) by the recipient, as these terms are “ready-made, reproducible language units” (Duhme, 1995, p. 84), thus meeting the criteria of lexicalisation and reproducibility and are closely related to “phraseolexicon” (Földes, 1987) of the language in question. These are idioms in a broad sense, which are not only codified in lexicons and dictionaries, but are also “stored” in the “memory” of the language user as “mnestic property of the speaker” (Vajičková, 2002).
Since the anomaly of one-word idioms lies mainly in their monolexicality, which violates the criterion of polylexicality, the analysis focuses primarily on this feature. The text notes the compound nominal one-word idioms in the German language, which are in terms of word formation mostly dephraseological derivatives or exocentric and possessive compounds.
From a semantic point of view, it specifically deals with a class of one-word idioms that express a certain characteristic of a person in an expressive way, either familiarly, ironically or vulgarly.
The work offers suggestions for further research into the issue from several perspectives. The possibility of deeper morphological research of idiomatic compounds in the mentioned languages according to the word type affiliation of their components and according to the applied word-formation procedures seems to be promising.