Research Article


DOI :10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730   IUP :10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730    Full Text (PDF)

Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of

Bilgin Tiryakioğlu

Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) pave the way for international investment arbitration for investors and play a crucial role in the settlement of investment disputes. In 63 years, 2871 BITs have been signed between States and 2231 of them have entered into force since the first BIT concluded between Germany and Pakistan in 1959. This alone reveals the importance of BITs in terms of the disputes arising from investment and their settlement through arbitration. Almost every BIT contains most favored nation (MFN) clause as a standard of treatment. However, the applicability of MFN clauses to procedural provisions of a BIT has been a controversial issue since 2000 when an ICSID tribunal’s award was rendered in the Maffezini case. Following the Maffezini case, conflicting arbitral awards have have become the centre of attention as to the scope of MFN clauses in terms of whether they could be extended to dispute resolution provisions. One of the main reasons leading to this controversy is that the BIT provisions regarding MFN clauses as well as dispute resolution provisions have not been formulated in a clear and unambiguous manner. Accordingly, different arbitral tribunals have interpreted BIT provisions differently regarding the extension of MFN clauses to dispute resolution provisions. This problem has had an impact all over the world and has led a radical shift both for arbitral awards that have been rendered by investment tribunals and BIT practices of almost all countries. MFN clauses no longer cover dispute resolution provisions of BITs that have been signed by Turkey since 2010.

DOI :10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730   IUP :10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730    Full Text (PDF)

Türkiye’nin Taraf Oluğu İki Taraflı Yatırım Anlaşmaları Çerçevesinde En Çok gözetilen Ulus Kaydının Uyuşmazlık Çözümüne İlişkin Anlaşma Hükümlere Teşmili

Bilgin Tiryakioğlu

Yatırımların Karşılıklı Korunması ve Teşvikine (YKTK) ilişkin anlaşmalar yatırımcılara yatırım tahkimi yolunu açmakta ve yatırım uyuşmazlıklarının çözümünde çok kritik bir rol üstlenmektedir. 1959 yılında Almanya ve Pakistan arasında ilk ikili yatırım anlaşmasının imzalanmasından sonra geçen 63 yılı içinde 2871 anlaşma imzalanmış ve bunlardan 2231’i yürürlüğe girmiştir. Sadece bu sayı bile yatırım uyuşmazlıkları ve bunların tahkim yoluyla çözümü bakımından ikili yatırım anlaşmalarının önemini ortaya koymaktadır. Yatırımlara uygulanacak muamele standardı olarak en çok gözetilen ulus kaydı neredeyse bütün YKTK anlaşmalarında yer almaktadır. Bununla beraber bu kaydın anılan anlaşmalarının usul hükümlerine uygulanıp uygulanmayacağı 2000 yılında Maffezini davasında verilen ICSID kararından bu yana tartışılmaktadır. Maffezini davasından sonra uyuşmazlık çözümüne ilişkin hükümler bakımından en çok gözetilen ulus kaydının kapsamına ilişkin olarak hakem kurullarının vermiş olduğu birbiriyle çelişkili kararlar ilgi odağı haline gelmiştir. Bu tartışmalara yol açan temel neden,hem en çok gözetilen ulus kaydı hem uyuşmazlık çözümüne ilişkin YKTK anlaşmalarındaki hükümlerin açık ve sınırları belirli bir biçimde kaleme alınmamış olmasıdır. Dolayısıyla, farklı hakem kurulları yorum yoluyla YKTK anlaşmalarındaki en çok gözetilen ulus kaydının uyuşmazlık çözümüne ilişkin hükümleri kapsayıp kapsamadığına ilişkin farklı sonuçlara ulaşmıştır. Birbiriyle çelişen hakem kararları yatırım tahkimi alanında dünya çapında tartışılmış, sonuçta hem hakem kararlarında hem ikili yatırım anlaşmaları uygulamasında önemli değişikliklerin gerçekleşmesine yol açmıştır. Türkiye’nin 2010 yılından başlayarak imzaladığı YKTK anlaşmalarında da bu değişim gözlenmiş ve en çok gözetilen ulus kaydının artık uyuşmazlık çözümüne ilişkin hükümleri kapsamayacağına ilişkin açık hükümlere yer verilmiştir


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APA

Tiryakioğlu, B. (2023). Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of. Public and Private International Law Bulletin, 43(1), 1-36. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730


AMA

Tiryakioğlu B. Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of. Public and Private International Law Bulletin. 2023;43(1):1-36. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730


ABNT

Tiryakioğlu, B. Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of. Public and Private International Law Bulletin, [Publisher Location], v. 43, n. 1, p. 1-36, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Tiryakioğlu, Bilgin,. 2023. “Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of.” Public and Private International Law Bulletin 43, no. 1: 1-36. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730


Chicago: Humanities Style

Tiryakioğlu, Bilgin,. Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of.” Public and Private International Law Bulletin 43, no. 1 (Mar. 2024): 1-36. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730


Harvard: Australian Style

Tiryakioğlu, B 2023, 'Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of', Public and Private International Law Bulletin, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1-36, viewed 3 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Tiryakioğlu, B. (2023) ‘Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of’, Public and Private International Law Bulletin, 43(1), pp. 1-36. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730 (3 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Tiryakioğlu, Bilgin,. Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of.” Public and Private International Law Bulletin, vol. 43, no. 1, 2023, pp. 1-36. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730


Vancouver

Tiryakioğlu B. Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of. Public and Private International Law Bulletin [Internet]. 3 Mar. 2024 [cited 3 Mar. 2024];43(1):1-36. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730 doi: 10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730


ISNAD

Tiryakioğlu, Bilgin. Extension of the Most Favoured Nation Clause to Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties Which Turkey is a Party of”. Public and Private International Law Bulletin 43/1 (Mar. 2024): 1-36. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.1.1174730



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Submitted14.09.2022
Accepted05.10.2022
Published Online01.02.2023

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