Research Article


DOI :10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391   IUP :10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391    Full Text (PDF)

Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands

Cüneyt YükselNesrin Singil

The roots of the current Eastern Aegean Islands problem go back to the middle of the 19th century when Greece gained its independence. The islands are geographically located in close proximity to the Turkish coast. Therefore, the Islands have been subject to many international conventions, including the 1913 London Treaty and the 1913 Athens Treaty based on the Joint Decision of the Six Major Powers of 1914, the 1923 Lausanne Peace Treaty, the 1923 Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits, the 1936 Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits, and the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty. Greece claims the Eastern Aegean Islands’ demilitarized status that these conventions regulate was abolished. As such, Greece engages in activities and actions aimed at violating the demilitarized status of the Eastern Aegean Islands, with these violations observed to have begun increasing. For this reason, Greece’s claims should be evaluated in the context of current issues, and considering the steps Türkiye will take in response to these violations is also essential. This study is organized into three parts: an examination of the Eastern Aegean Islands and the concept of demilitarized status within the framework of international law, the evaluation of the Greek theses regarding the Eastern Aegean Islands, and the evaluation of the concept of demilitarized status of the Eastern Aegean Islands in light of current issues and Türkiye’s options within the framework of international law. The first section examines the Aegean Islands and the history of their sovereignty and then discusses the concept of demilitarized status and the international regulations regarding it in regard to the Eastern Aegean Islands. The second section addresses the Greek theses on a fundamental change of circumstances having occurred regarding the treaties, how the later treaties replace previous treaties, invoking the right to self-defense, and Türkiye’s inability to rely on the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty. The last section evaluates current issues regarding the demilitarized status of the Eastern Aegean Islands in the context of international law.

DOI :10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391   IUP :10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391    Full Text (PDF)

Uluslararası Hukukta Gayri Askeri Statü ve Doğu Ege Adaları’nın Askerileştirilmesi Sorunu

Cüneyt YükselNesrin Singil

Günümüzdeki Doğu Ege Adaları sorununun kökleri, Yunanistan’ın bağımsızlığını kazandığı 19. yüzyılın ortalarına kadar uzanmaktadır. Adalar, coğrafi olarak Türkiye kıyılarına çok yakın bir konumda bulunmaktadır. Bu sebeple Adaların, pek çok uluslararası sözleşmeye konu olduğu görülmektedir. Bunlar; 1914 tarihli Altı Büyük Devlet Kararı’nın dayanağını teşkil eden 1913 tarihli Londra Andlaşması ile 1913 tarihli Atina Andlaşması, 1923 tarihli Lozan Barış Andlaşması, 1923 tarihli Lozan Boğazlar Sözleşmesi, 1936 tarihli Montreux Boğazlar Sözleşmesi ve 1947 tarihli Paris Barış Andlaşması’dır. Yunanistan, Doğu Ege Adaları’nın belirtilen sözleşmeler ile düzenlenmiş olan gayri askeri statüsünün kalktığını ileri sürmektedir. Bu doğrultuda, Adaların gayri askeri statüsünün ihlaline yönelik faaliyet ve eylemlerde bulunmaktadır. Günümüzde, ihlallerin artmaya başladığı gözlemlenmektedir. Bu sebeple, Yunanistan’ın iddialarının güncel meseleler bağlamında değerlendirilmesi gerekmektedir. Ayrıca, Türkiye’nin bu ihlallere karşılık olarak atacağı adımların ele alınması önem arz etmektedir. Çalışma, uluslararası hukuk çerçevesinde Doğu Ege Adaları ve gayri askeri statü kavramı, gayri askeri statüdeki Doğu Ege Adaları’na ilişkin Yunan tezlerinin değerlendirilmesi ve güncel meseleler ışığında Doğu Ege Adaları’nın gayri askeri statüsünün değerlendirilmesi ve uluslararası hukuk çerçevesinde Türkiye’nin seçenekleri olmak üzere üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. İlk bölümde; Ege Adaları üzerindeki egemenliğe ilişkin tarihsel süreç ve Ege Adaları incelenmektedir. Ardından, gayri askeri statü kavramı ve Doğu Ege Adaları’nın gayri askeri statüsüne ilişkin uluslararası düzenlemeler ele alınmaktadır. İkinci bölümde ise, Yunanistan’ın andlaşmaların yapıldığı şartlarda esaslı değişiklik meydana geldiği iddiası, sonraki tarihli andlaşmanın önceki tarihli andlaşmanın yerini aldığı iddiası, meşru müdafaa hakkının bulunduğu iddiası ve Türkiye’nin 1947 tarihli Paris Barış Andlaşması’na dayanamayacağı iddiası irdelenmektedir. Son bölümde ise, Doğu Ege Adaları’nın gayri askeri statüsüne ilişkin yaşanan güncel meseleler uluslararası hukuk bağlamında değerlendirilmektedir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Throughout history, the Aegean Islands have been under the sovereignty of different empires and dynasties. The roots of the current Eastern Aegean Islands problem go back to the middle of the 19th century when Greece gained its independence. The Eastern Aegean Islands include the Boğazönü Islands (at the entrance to the Dardanelles), the Northeastern Aegean Islands, and the Dodecanese Islands. These islands are geographically located in close proximity to the Turkish coast, which has raised concerns about Türkiye’s security. For this reason, the islands have been subject to international conventions. Among these, the 1913 London Treaty and the 1913 Athens Treaty, in which the authority to decide ownership of the islands was left to the Major Powers, are very crucial. With the Joint Decision of the Six Major Powers of 1914, the islands under the occupation of Greece were subordinated to the sovereignty of Greece. According to this joint decision, the islands were ceded to Greece on the condition that they were to remain under demilitarized status.

The 1923 Lausanne Peace Treaty confirmed the Joint Decision of the Six Major Powers of 1914 and includes detailed regulations regarding the demilitarized status of the islands. The 1923 Convention Relating to the Regime of the Straits (the 1923 Lausanne Straits Convention) regulated the demilitarized status of the Boğazönü Islands, which are subject to Turkish and Greek sovereignty. The 1936 Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits (the 1936 Montreux Convention) abolished this status for the region of the Turkish Straits while maintaining the demilitarized status of the Booğazönü Islands, which are subject to Greek sovereignty. Finally, the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty transferred the sovereignty of the Dodecanese Islands and Kastellorizo Island, which had been under the sovereignty of Italy, to Greece under the provision that these islands remain under demilitarized status. Türkiye should be noted to have not been a party to the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty.

Greece claims the regulations of these conventions to have abolished the demilitarized status of the Eastern Aegean Islands. In this regard, the first claim of Greece is that fundamental changes have occurred to the circumstances of the treaties. According to this claim, the 1923 Lausanne Peace Treaty and the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty cover different circumstances. The second is the claim that the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty replaced the 1923 Lausanne Peace Treaty. Accordingly, the 1936 Montreux Convention also replaced the 1923 Lausanne Straits Convention. Third, Greece claims that Türkiye cannot uphold the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty as Türkiye had not been a party to this treaty. The last claim sees Greece’s right of self-defense coming to the fore, as according to Greece, Türkiye has made so-called threats against Greece.

However, one should note that no fundamental changes have occurred regarding the circumstances on which both Treaties were made. For this reason, neither of these Treaties can be terminated. In terms of the second claim, the Montreux Convention only regulates the abolition of the demilitarized status for the region of the Turkish Straits (i.e., the Dardanelles, the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara). Moreover, the provisions in the 1923 Lausanne Straits Convention are not in conflict with provisions in the 1936 Montreux Convention that are in force today. Thirdly, the fact that Türkiye was not a party to the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty does not mean Türkiye cannot abide by this treaty. The 1947 Paris Peace Treaty established an objective status. Finally, the claim of a threat is insufficient for invoking the right to self-defense. In order for a country to invoke the right to self-defense, Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations (1945) clearly states the requirement of the presence of an armed attack for invoking self-defense. Therefore, Greece’s claim goes against international law. In this context, Greece’s claims regarding the abolishment of the demilitarized status of the Eastern Aegean Islands constitute a violation of the relevant international conventions and rules of international law.

Within the framework of these erroneous claims, Greece has engaged in activities and actions aimed at violating the demilitarized status of these islands, and these activities and actions in violation of the islands’ demilitarized stated have currently begun increasing. For this reason, Greece’s arguments regarding the abolishment of the demilitarized status of these islands should be evaluated in the context of current issues. Considering which steps Türkiye will take in response to these violations is also essential.

This study consists of three sections. The first section discusses and examines the Aegean Islands and the history of sovereignty over them. Afterward, the study discusses the concept of demilitarized status and international regulations regarding the demilitarized status of the Eastern Aegean Islands. The second section discusses Greece’s claims regarding fundamental changes to the circumstances of the treaties (rebus sic stantibus), how the later treaty replaces the previous treaty, invoking the right to self-defense, and Türkiye’s in ability to uphold the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty (res inter alios acta). The last part evaluates the demilitarized status of the Eastern Aegean Islands in light of current issues, with the study lastly putting Türkiye’s options forward in the context of international law. 


PDF View

References

  • Kitap, Makale ve Tezler google scholar
  • Ak G, ‘Tarih, Deniz ve Egemenlik: Ege’nin Isporadları “Menteşe Adaları”nın Dünü ve Bugünü’ (2014) XIV (29) Çağdaş Türkiye Tarihi Araştırmaları Dergisi 283-313. google scholar
  • Akkaya D, Uluslararası Andlaşmalarda Şartların Esaslı Değişimi: Rebus Sic Stantibus İlkesi (Seçkin 2021). google scholar
  • Akkutay Aİ, ‘Askeri Üst Uçuşlar ile Sahil Güvenlik Gemilerinin Faaliyetlerinin Gayri Askeri Statüdeki Ege Adaları Bakımından Değerlendirilmesi’ (2018) 134 TBB Dergisi 639-672. google scholar
  • Aksar Y, Teoride ve Uygulamada Uluslararası Hukuk I (Genişletilmiş ve Güncellenmiş 6th edn Seçkin 2021). google scholar
  • Aksar Y, Teoride ve Uygulamada Uluslararası Hukuk II (Genişletilmiş ve güncellenmiş 6th edn Seçkin 2021). google scholar
  • Aksu F, ‘Ege Sorunlarının Geleceği ve Türkiye: AB Üyelik Sürecinde Türkiye’nin Seçenekleri’ (2005) 5 Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi 261-286. google scholar
  • Başeren SH, Ege Sorunları, (2nd edn, Türk Deniz Araştırmaları Vakfı Yayınları 2006). google scholar
  • Belenli T, ‘Türkiye-İtalya-Yunanistan Üçgeninde Rodos ve Oniki Ada (1911-1930)’ (2019) 64 Ankara Üniversitesi Türk İnkılâp Tarihi Enstitüsü Atatürk Yolu Dergisi 69-102. google scholar
  • Bowett DW, Self-Defense in International Law (Frederick A Praeger 1958). google scholar
  • Bölükbaşı D, Turkey and Greece The Aegean Disputes: A Unique Case in International Law (Cavendish Publishing Limited, 2004). google scholar
  • Chillaud M, ‘The Concept of Territorial Disarmament’ Territorial Disarmament in Northern Europe (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 2006). google scholar
  • Dinstein Y, War, Aggression and Self-Defence (5th edn, Cambridge University Press 2011). google scholar
  • Ege Denizi ve Ege Adaları (Harp Akademileri Basım Evi, 1995). google scholar
  • Erinç S and Yücel T, Ege Denizi Türkiye ile Komşu Ege Adaları (Türk Kültürünü Araştırma Enstitüsü Yayınları 1978). google scholar
  • Erkiner HH, ‘Birleşmiş Milletler Uluslararası Adalet Divanı Kararlarının Birleşmiş Milletler Güvenlik Konseyi Aracılığıyla Uygulatılması’ (2017) 23 (2) MÜHF-HAD 87-102. google scholar
  • Garner JW, ‘The Doctrine of Rebus Sic Stantibus and the Termination of Treaties’ (1927) 21(3) American Journal of International Law 509-516. google scholar
  • Lamb G, ‘Demilitarisation: A Review of the Concept and Observations from the Southern African Experience’ (1999) 7, google scholar
  • https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326477484_DEMILITARISATION_A_REVIEW_ OF_THE_CONCEPT_AND_OBSERVATIONS_FROM_THE_SOUTHERN_AFRICAN_ EXPERIENCE accessed 08 November 2022. google scholar
  • Karadağ U, ‘Birleşmiş Milletler Antlaşması’na Göre Meşru Müdafaa Hakkı’ (2016) 7 (2) İnönü Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi 171-186. google scholar
  • Kaya İ, Yüksel C and Şimşek GE, Uluslararası Hukuk Pratik Çalışma Kitabı (Güncelleştirilmiş ve Genişletilmiş 3rd edn Seçkin 2022). google scholar
  • Oppenheim LF, International Law: A Treatise I, (2nd edn Longmans, Green and Co 2012). google scholar
  • Pazarcı H, Doğu Ege Adalarının Askerden Arındırılmış Statüsü (AÜSBF ve Basın- Yayın Yüksekokulu Basımevi 1986). google scholar
  • Pirim CZ, ‘Uluslararası Andlaşmalar Hukukunda Değişim, İstikrar ve Değişim Yoluyla İstikrar: Rebus Sic Stantibus’ (2022) 51 TAAD 47-76. google scholar
  • Roscini M, ‘Threats of Armed Force and Contemporary International Law’ (2007) 54 (2) Netherlands International Law Review 229-277. google scholar
  • Sadurska R, ‘Threats of Force’ (1988) 82 (2) The American Journal of International Law 239-268 google scholar
  • Schmitt MN, ‘Aegean Angst The Greek-Turkish Disputes’ (1996) 49 (3) Naval War College Review 42-72. google scholar
  • Singil N, Kıta Sahanlığının Sınırlandırılmasında Orantılılık İlkesinin Rolü (Oniki Levha 2020). google scholar
  • Suraputra DS, ‘Doctrine of Rebus Sic Stantibus and Law of International Treaty’ (2014) 11(4) Jurnal Hukum Internasional 462-482. google scholar
  • Şimşir BN, Ege Sorunu Belgeler I (Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi 1976). google scholar
  • Toluner S, ‘Doğu Ege Adalarının Askersizleştirme Rejimi Çerçevesinde Kara, Deniz ve Hava Sahasından Askeri Geçiş ve Faaliyetlere Dair Bir Değerlendirme’ (Genişletilmiş 2nd edn Beta 2004) Milletlerarası Hukuk Açısından Türkiye’nin Bazı Dış Politika Sorunları. google scholar
  • Toluner S, ‘Objektif Hukuki Durum Yaratan Andlaşmalar Kavramı Gerekli Midir?’ (2005) 25 (1-2) Milletlerarası Hukuk ve Milletlerarası Özel Hukuk Bülteni 519-580. google scholar
  • Toluner S, Limni Adası’nın Hukuki Statüsü ve Montreux Boğazlar Konvansiyonu (Milletlerarası Hukuk ve Milletlerarası Münasebetler Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi 1987). google scholar
  • Van Dyke JM, ‘An Analysis of the Aegean Disputes under International Law’ (2005) 36 (1) Ocean Development & International Law, 63-117. google scholar
  • Yaycı C, Yunanistan Talepleri (Ege Sorunları): Soru ve Cevaplarla (Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları 2020). google scholar
  • Yazan Y, ‘Türk-Yunan Ege Denizi Sorunlarının Avrupa Birliği Komisyonunun ve Parlamentosunun Bakış Açıları Çerçevesinde İncelenmesi’ (2012) 2(1) Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi İktisadi İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 191-218. google scholar
  • Yüce H, Uluslararası Hukukta Kuvvet Kullanma Tehdidi (Master thesis, İstanbul University 2023). google scholar
  • Uluslararası Yargı Kararları google scholar
  • Anglo-Iranian Oil Co Case (United Kingdom v Iran) [1952] ICJ Rep 93. google scholar
  • Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company Limited (Belgium v Spain) [1970] ICJ Rep 3. google scholar
  • Fisheries Jurisdiction (United Kingdom v Iceland) [1973] ICJ Rep 3. google scholar
  • Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso v Republic of Mali) [1986] ICJ Rep 554. google scholar
  • Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v Slovakia) [1997] ICJ Rep 7. google scholar
  • International Status of South-West Africa (Advisory Opinion) 1950 <https://www.icj-cij.org/en/ case/10 > accessed 27 October 2022 [128]-[219]. google scholar
  • Legal Consequences for States of the Contitiued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa) notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276 (1970) (Advisory Opinion) 1971 www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/53/053-19710621-ADV-01-00-EN.pdf> accessed 30 October 2022 [16]-[66]. google scholar
  • Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons (Advisory Opinion) 1996 <https://www.icj-cij. org/public/files/case-related/95/095-19960708-ADV-01-00-EN.pdf> accessed 30 October 2022 [226]-[267]. google scholar
  • Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v United States of America), [1986] (Merits) ICJ Rep 14. google scholar
  • Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v United States of America) [2003] ICJ Rep 161. google scholar
  • Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations (Advisory Opinion) 1949 <https://www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/4/004-19490411-ADV-01-00-EN.pdf> accessed 13 November 2022. google scholar
  • Uluslararası Sözleşme ve Belgeler google scholar
  • Anadolu Sahilleri ile Meis Adası Arasındaki Ada ve Adacıkların ve Bodrum Körfezi Karşısındaki Adanın Ciheti Aidiyeti Hakkında İtalya Hükümetile Aktolunan İtilâfname, RG Tarih 25.01.1933, RG Sayı 2313. google scholar
  • Boğazlar Rejimi Hakkında Montreux’de 20 Temmuz 1936 Tarihinde İmza Edilen Mukavelename, RG Tarih 05.08.1936, RG Sayı 3374. google scholar
  • Charter of the United Nations (signed on 26 June 1945, entered into force 24 October 1945), <https:// treaties.un.org/doc/publication/ctc/uncharter.pdf> accessed 27 October 2022. google scholar
  • Convention regarding the Régime of Straits (signed on 20 July 1936) 173 (4015) LNTS 213. google scholar
  • Convention relating to the Non-Fortification and Neutralisation of the Aaland Islands (signed 20 October 1921) IX (255) LNTS 211. google scholar
  • Convention relating the Régime of Straits (signed on 24 July 1923) XXVIII (702) LNTS 115. google scholar
  • ILC Draft articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts 2001 2 (2) YILC 31. google scholar
  • ILC Draft articles on the Draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind 1989 (2) YILC 68. google scholar
  • Erim N, ‘Sevr Andlaşması’ Devletlerarası Hukuku ve Siyasi Tarih Metinleri 1 (Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi 1953) 525-691, <https://www.ttk.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/6-Sevr.pdf> accessed 27 October 2022. google scholar
  • Kaya İ, ‘Viyana Andlaşmalar Hukuku Sözleşmesi’ Uluslararası Hukukta Temel Belgeler (Gözden geçirilmiş ve genişletilmiş 3rd edn Seçkin 2016) 66-111. google scholar
  • LN ‘Report of the International Committee of Jurists entrusted by the Council of the League of Nations with the task of giving an advisory opinion upon the legal aspects of the Aaland Islands question’ (1920) League of Nations Official Journal 3. google scholar
  • Meray SL (trs), Lozan Barış Konferansı: Tutanaklar, Belgeler II (Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Yayınları 1973). google scholar
  • Meray SL and Olcay O (trs), Montrö Boğazlar Konferansı: Tutanaklar, Belgeler (Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları 2020). google scholar
  • Status of Spitsbergen (signed 9 February 1920, entered into force 14 August 1925) 18 BTS 269. google scholar
  • Statute of the International Court of Justice (1946) <https://www.icj-cij.org/en/statute> accessed 29 October 2022. google scholar
  • Traité de Londres (tenu à Londres le 3 Février 1830) <https://www.mfa.gr > docs > diethneis_ symvaseis> accessed 27 October 2022. google scholar
  • Traité de paix de Londres (signé à Londres, le 17/30 mai 1913) <https://www.mfa.gr > docs > 1913_ london_treaty> accessed 27 October 2022. google scholar
  • Treaty of Peace (signed on 24 July 1923) XXVIII (701) LNTS 11. google scholar
  • Treaty of Peace with Italy (signed on 10 February 1947) 49 (747) UNTS 3. google scholar
  • UN ‘Compulsory Jurisdiction of the Internatonal Court of Justice Declaration by Greece’ (1994) UN Doc C.N.13.1994.TREATIES-1, <https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/CN/1994/CN.13.1994-Eng.pdf> accessed 12 November 2022. google scholar
  • UNGA and UNGS ‘Letter dated 13 July 2021 from the Permanent Representative of Turkey to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General’ (2021) UN Doc A/75/961-S/2021/651. google scholar
  • UNGA and UNGS ‘Letter dated 30 September 2021 from the Permanent Representative of Turkey to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General’ (2021) UN Doc A/76/379-S/2021/841. google scholar
  • UNGA and UNGS, ‘Letter dated 17 September 2022 from the Permanent Representative of Türkiye to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General’ (2022) UN Doc A/77/354-S/2022/703. google scholar
  • UNGA and UNGS, ‘Letter dated 25 May 2022 from the Permanent Representative of Greece to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General’ (2022) UN Doc A/76/846-S/2022/432. google scholar
  • UNGA and UNGS ‘Letter dated 6 September 2022 from the Permanent Representative of Greece to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General’ (2022) UN Doc A/76/941-S/2022/673. google scholar
  • UNGA and UNGS, ‘Letter dated 28 July 2021 from the Permanent Representative of Turkey to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General’ (2021) UN Doc A/75/976-S/2021/684. google scholar
  • UNSC, ‘Letter dated 22 January 2002 from the Chargé d’affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Honduras to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council’ (2002) UN Doc S/2002/108. google scholar
  • UNSC, ‘Provisional Verbatim Record of the Two Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighteenth Meeting’ (1986) UN Doc S/PV.2718. google scholar
  • UNSC, Resolution 395 (1976) UN Doc S/RES/395. google scholar
  • UNSC, Resolution 819 (1993) UN Doc S/RES/819. google scholar
  • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (adopted 23 May 1969, entred into force 27 January 1980), 1155 UNTS 331. google scholar
  • Elektronik Kaynaklar google scholar
  • ‘12 Eylül - 20 Ekim 2020 tarihleri arasında Yunanistan’ın gerginliği artırıcı eylemleri (Güncel Versiyon)’ <https://www.mfa.gov.tr/site_media/html/denizcilik/Yunanistan-in-12-Eylul-2020-tarihinden-itibaren-Dogu-Akdeniz-ve-Ege-Denizi-nde-Gerginligi-Artirici-Adimlari.pdf> accessed 13 November 2022. google scholar
  • ‘Signing of Protocol of Amendment to the Mutual Defense Cooperation Agreement with Greece’ <https://www.state.gov/signing-of-protocol-of-amendment-to-the-mutual-defense-cooperation-agreement-with-greece/> accessed 13 November 2022. google scholar
  • ‘Yunan Savunma Bakanı, ABD Savunma Bakanı Austin’den F-35 Savaş Uçağı İstedi’ <https://www. aa.com.tr/tr/dunya/yunan-savunma-bakani-abd-savunma-bakani-austin-den-f-35-savas-ucagi-istedi/2639750> accessed 24 February 2023. google scholar
  • ‘néToaç os SKAÏ: Kapia sSSnviKn Kupépvnon Ssv ovZnTâ anooTpaTiKonoiqon Trov vnoiróv’ www.skai.gr/petsas-se-skai-kamia-elliniki-kyvernisi-den-syzita-apostratikopoiisi-ton-nision> accessed 13 November 2022. google scholar
  • Acer Y, ‘Doğu Ege Adalarının Silahlandırılması ve Egemenlik Tartışması: Türkiye İçin Yeni Bir Hukuki Yol’ (2022) 66 Kriter, <https://kriterdergi.com/dosya-savunma-ve-guvenlik/dogu-ege-adalarinin-silahlandirilmasi-ve-egemenlik-tartismasi-turkiye-icin-yeni-bir-hukuki-yol> accessed 27 October 2022. google scholar
  • Berberakis S, ‘Yunanistan’dan Ege’de Dört Ayrı Tatbikat: Erdoğan ve Miçotakis’in Prag’da Görüşme İhtimali Ortadan Kalktı mı?’ (28.09.2022), <https://www.bbc.com/turkce/articles/c72edkw8z79o> accessed 27 October 2022. google scholar
  • Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Minister of Foreign Affairs Nikos Dendias’ Statements Following His Meeting with Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Sergey Lavrov (18.02.2022) <https://www.mfa.gr/en/current-affairs/top-story/minister-of-foreign-affairs-nikos-dendias-statements-following-his-meeting-with-minister-of-foreign-affairs-of-the-russian-federation-sergey-lavrov-moscow-18022022.html> accessed 27 October 2022. google scholar
  • Özer S, ‘Yunanistan’dan Adalara Hukuka Aykırı Zırhlı Araç Sevkiyatı’, (25.09.2022) www.aa.com.tr/tr/gundem/yunanistandan-adalara-hukuka-aykiri-zirhli-arac-sevkiyati/2694087> accessed 27 October 2022. google scholar
  • Security Council-Veto List, <https://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/resguide/scact_veto_table_en.htm> accessed 29 October 2022. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Yüksel, C., & Singil, N. (2023). Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands. Public and Private International Law Bulletin, 43(2), 447-489. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391


AMA

Yüksel C, Singil N. Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands. Public and Private International Law Bulletin. 2023;43(2):447-489. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391


ABNT

Yüksel, C.; Singil, N. Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands. Public and Private International Law Bulletin, [Publisher Location], v. 43, n. 2, p. 447-489, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Yüksel, Cüneyt, and Nesrin Singil. 2023. “Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands.” Public and Private International Law Bulletin 43, no. 2: 447-489. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391


Chicago: Humanities Style

Yüksel, Cüneyt, and Nesrin Singil. Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands.” Public and Private International Law Bulletin 43, no. 2 (Mar. 2024): 447-489. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391


Harvard: Australian Style

Yüksel, C & Singil, N 2023, 'Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands', Public and Private International Law Bulletin, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 447-489, viewed 4 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Yüksel, C. and Singil, N. (2023) ‘Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands’, Public and Private International Law Bulletin, 43(2), pp. 447-489. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391 (4 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Yüksel, Cüneyt, and Nesrin Singil. Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands.” Public and Private International Law Bulletin, vol. 43, no. 2, 2023, pp. 447-489. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391


Vancouver

Yüksel C, Singil N. Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands. Public and Private International Law Bulletin [Internet]. 4 Mar. 2024 [cited 4 Mar. 2024];43(2):447-489. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391 doi: 10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391


ISNAD

Yüksel, Cüneyt - Singil, Nesrin. Demilitarized Status in International Law and the Militarization Problem of the Eastern Aegean Islands”. Public and Private International Law Bulletin 43/2 (Mar. 2024): 447-489. https://doi.org/10.26650/ppil.2023.43.2.1204391



TIMELINE


Submitted14.11.2022
Accepted10.03.2023
Published Online27.03.2023

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.